Persian Basic Mardonius noticed a chance to crush the Greeks in July 479 BC close to Thebes.
By Eric Niderost
Persian King Xerxes I “The Nice” was a person who favored to solicit totally different opinions earlier than he decided on any essential matter. He was within the midst of a marketing campaign to overcome mainland Greece within the fall of 480 bc, however his fleet had been savagely mauled in September at Salamis. It was a shocking defeat, made much more distasteful as a result of Xerxes had personally witnessed it whereas sitting on a golden throne.
The Persian monarch was a good-looking man with curly hair and an extended black beard, and he was elegantly wearing a long-sleeved kafkan-style gown. The senior commanders, lots of them warriors of distinction, filed
in and respectfully waited for the convention to start. The king wore a tall, jewel-studded headdress, a logo of his standing, however Xerxes didn’t want the trimmings of royalty to say his authority.
Mardonius was one of many first to talk. He was Xerxes’ cousin, however army expertise, not nepotism, made him a basic within the king’s host. If we’re to consider the Greek historian Herodotus, Mardonius was one of many chief promoters of this marketing campaign, urging Xerxes to cope with the troublesome Greeks as soon as and for all.
The Greek settlements in Ionia alongside the japanese shores of the Mediterranean have been already managed by Xerxes, however they have been a rebellious lot. They have been inspired by the Greek city-states on the mainland, notably Athens. Mardonius argued Athens have to be punished, and the conquest of Greece would take away a thorn from Xerxes’ aspect. The Ionian Greeks would have nowhere to show in the event that they needed to revolt once more.
Xerxes invaded Greece with a military of 200,000 males. At first, the Persian avalanche was profitable, and because the mighty host proceeded Greek cities within the north have been fast to supply earth and water in token of submission.
However different Greeks have been made from sterner stuff. Led by King Leonidas and his Spartans, an Allied Greek military heroically held the move at Thermopylae. When the Persians discovered of a approach by means of the mountains, the primary Greek military was pressured to withdraw to keep away from encirclement. Leonidas and a handful of Greeks stayed behind and fought to the final man in August.
Xerxes marched on to Athens, forcing its
inhabitants to evacuate to Salamis Island. The Persian king took his revenge in a spectacular style, burning the town and destroying the temples on the Acropolis. It appeared as if he was on the cusp of complete victory. As Thermopylae was being fought, the allied Greek fleet met the Persians at Artemisium. The Greek triremes held their very own and achieved some native success, however the sheer weight of the Persian fleet started to inform. The Greek fleet withdrew to the south.
The naval battle at Salamis tipped the scales in favor of the Greeks. The Persian fleet misplaced about 200 triremes, and lots of extra have been broken within the battle. Much more necessary, the Greeks had gained a psychological, in addition to a bodily, victory over their opponents. The Persian fleet comprised ships from many various topic peoples. The fleet lacked a unity of function, and little question a lot of the ship crews have been serving underneath duress. Worry of the king’s wrath was their chief motivation.
Regardless of the sudden defeat, the Persian fleet nonetheless vastly outnumbered the Greek fleet, however surviving crews have been badly shaken. Morale was low, and few needed to resume the competition. Ships could possibly be repaired, however what little enthusiasm the king’s sailors had for the marketing campaign died with their comrades within the deep blue waters of Salamis, which was full of particles, damaged oars, blood, and corpses.
The Greek victory at Salamis, whereas vital, was not as decisive because it appeared. In some respects the triumph was extra obvious than actual. Xerxes was the grasp of northern and central Greece, and his military was giant, intact, and undefeated. Solely the Peloponnese, the homeland of the Spartans, was as but unoccupied and nonetheless defied the Persian king. From the Persian viewpoint, Salamis may be solely a short lived setback.
That’s the reason Mardonius urged his cousin to press on with the marketing campaign. The Peloponnese was in impact an enormous peninsula, related to the mainland by a slender neck of land on the Isthmus of Corinth. That neck had been blocked by a rapidly erected wall, however there was nonetheless sufficient of a Persian fleet, demoralized or not, to include the Greek triremes.
If the Greek ships might be held at bay, a mole or bridge of some type may be constructed, in a lot similar means because the Hellespont had been crossed earlier within the marketing campaign. As soon as the isthmus was outflanked, Xerxes’ military would march in and the Peloponnese would fall. That, at the least, was the heady state of affairs that Mardonius was confidently predicting.
After some additional debate, Xerxes dismissed all his officers and officers and despatched for the one individual he had grown to depend on above all others. That particular person was Queen Artemisia of Caria. She was that rarity within the historic world, a lady whose braveness and brains have been valued over her magnificence or desirability. Artemisia held her personal in a male-dominated world, and she or he was revered for it.
Herodotus was awed by her as a result of she truly commanded the Carian naval contingent. Artemisia was removed from an excellent common; for instance, at Salamis she truly rammed and sank a pleasant trireme in an effort to flee pursuing Greeks. However on land she was far more invaluable, contributing a eager intelligence to the Persian trigger.
Though Mardonius favored attacking the Peloponnese, he additionally steered an alternate: Xerxes may go residence with the majority of the military whereas he would keep on with a considerable drive. Winter was quick approaching and with it the top of the campaigning season. Mardonius would winter in Greece and resume the offensive within the spring.
Artemisia arrived, and Xerxes laid out the 2 programs of motion being thought-about. He requested her which she favored. The queen contemplated the options. She suggested the latter course: Mardonius would keep in Greece and within the spring would full the conquest. If the marketing campaign was profitable, it will be to Xerxes’ credit score, Artemisia stated. But when Mardonius was defeated “it might be of no nice loss, since you and the affairs of your home will survive,” she stated.
To clinch the argument, Artemisia continued, “Ought to Mardonius endure some catastrophe, it is going to be of no account. The Greeks will win no victory in the event that they destroy solely your slave [Mardonius]. You, however, can be returning after burning Athens, the thing of your marketing campaign.”
Xerxes was happy and determined to take her counsel. He was too removed from the Persian capital of Persepolis from which he might monitor his huge kingdom. He needed to return to Persia. Solely time would inform whether or not Ahura Maza, the Zoroastrian deity of the Persians, would prevail over Zeus, the god of the Greeks. If Mardonius needed to simply accept duty for the marketing campaign, let him. He might be a handy scapegoat if issues turned out badly.
The king’s large military started a withdrawal from Attica, persevering with on by means of Phocis, Boeotia, and Thessaly. As soon as in Thessaly the military divided, with Xerxes taking some troops with him again house and the rest staying with Mardonius. Historic figures are virtually all the time deceptive, however the king’s cousin in all probability had upward of 100,000 troops with him.
Simply earlier than Xerxes went house he met with a Spartan herald, who formally demanded compensation for the demise of King Leonidas at Thermopylae. Xerxes laughed and pointed to his cousin. “That is Mardonius, and he can pay the Spartans the compensation they’re owed!” stated Xerxes.
After Salamis the Greeks absolutely anticipated to struggle one other sea battle the very subsequent day. They have been completely satisfied to have gained a victory towards the chances, because of onerous preventing and the metis of the Athenian chief Themistocles. Metis was an idea of the thoughts that used crafty, invention, and intelligence to realize its ends.
Themistocles, wily and resourceful, had despatched a secret message to Xerxes saying that many ships within the Greek fleet have been about to abandon. Enraged at this betrayal, Themistocles stated the Athenians have been prepared to modify sides and be a part of the forces of the Persian king. However he additionally added that if the Persian fleet entered the Straits of Salamis, they might reduce off the retreat of the opposite Greek triremes.
It was all a ruse, in fact, a trick to lure the Persian fleet into slender waters the place their numerical benefit can be neutralized. The Persian king was no match for Themistocles and his Athenian metis. But after the battle the Persian fleet’s Egyptian contingent was largely intact, a nucleus that, with the survivors of Salamis, might nonetheless outnumber the Greeks. Fortunately, the psychological injury inflicted on the Persian fleet was even higher than the fabric injury. It might play little or no half within the subsequent marketing campaign.
The battered Persian fleet withdrew to the island of Samos, primarily to control Xerxes’ troublesome Greek topics in Ionia. Whereas it was clear the Persian fleet wouldn’t stage a serious offensive, its mere presence was a thorn within the Greek aspect.
With winter approaching Mardonius’ military bivouacked in Thessaly to await the approaching of spring. The ships within the Greek fleet dispersed to their residence ports, and the Spartans and different models from the Peloponnesus withdrew to their defensive position on the slender neck of the Isthmus of Corinth. The spoils of Salamis have been distributed, and the Greeks made dedications to their gods and erected commemorative monuments and memorials to their heroic lifeless.
The Athenians returned to their devastated metropolis, which had been closely broken in locations. However houses and temples might be rebuilt, in fact, and the Athenians have been happy that they have been freed from the Persian yoke. Whereas they have been rebuilding, the Athenians stumbled upon Xerxes’ golden footstool atop the hill the place he had watched with anger and dismay as his navy was defeated at Salamis. This was a particular prize, and it was dutifully carried as much as the scorched Acropolis and devoted to the town’s patron goddess, Athena.
The ruined metropolis as soon as extra pulsed with life, and the Athenians celebrated their deliverance from the Persian yoke with music and dance. One of many dances was led by a gifted teenager named Sophocles, who ultimately would turn out to be considered one of Greece’s most gifted playwrights.
Chilling autumn winds lashed Attica, heralds of the rains that soaked the earth and watered the crops. Naturally quarrelsome and stubbornly unbiased, the Greeks had a tough time retaining their alliance robust and intact. A part of the issue was centered on geography. The Spartans needed to primarily abandon central Greece, which included Athens.
The Spartans and different Greeks misplaced no time in constructing a wall throughout the isthmus.
The Athenians needed to confront the Persian host as far north as potential however they have been going to wish plenty of luck and make use of a big dose of metis to get their approach. Curiously, the Persian basic Mardonius truly helped the Athenians on this regard.
Mardonius might not have been as crafty as Themistocles, however he knew the Greek alliance was shaky. Maybe Persian gold within the type of bribes would accomplish greater than Persian spears ever might. Above all, the Persian basic realized that Athens and Sparta have been the pillars of the Greek alliance. The Spartans have been thought-about uninteresting and unimaginative, silly in all the things besides the artwork of struggle, but when luck and Ahura-Mazda favored them, the Athenians may rise to the bait.
The Persian common started his verbal offensive within the spring of 479 by sending Alexander, King of Macedon, as a particular emissary to the Athenians. If the Athenians switched sides, Xerxes would supply them freedom, in all probability a type of autonomy, inside the Persian Empire. To sweeten the deal, there can be new lands within the offing, and the Athenian temples, principally in ruins, can be rebuilt with Persian gold.
The Athenians’ response was typical of them at their greatest. It was nicely thought out and delicate. First, they despatched messages to the Spartans informing them of the king’s supply. If the Spartans have been afraid the Athenians may depart the alliance, they could abandon their plans to remain within the Peloponnese. After the messengers have been dispatched the Athenians despatched a message of defiance to Mardonius. “As long as the solar holds its current course, we’ll by no means comply with phrases with Xerxes.”
Little question angered and disenchanted by their response, Mardonius moved south on Athens. As soon as once more, as after Thermopylae, all the inhabitants was evacuated to the island of Salamis. This time the Persians spared nothing; they torched almost each home, temple, and public constructing. Just a few homes have been spared to briefly home some Persian officers. The remaining was laid waste.
When the Spartans nonetheless hesitated to march north, the Athenians issued an ultimatum: Be a part of us or we’ll settle for the Persian supply. This was a message even the thick-headed troopers of Sparta might perceive. The Spartans and their Lacedaemonian perioikoi (affiliated communities) would come to assistance from the Athenians. Roughly 5,000 Spartan hoplites can be the core of this contribution. Every Spartan can be accompanied by a number of psiloi, servants, or attendants who doubled as mild troops.
When he heard the Spartans and different Greeks have been coming, Mardonius determined to desert Attica and withdraw to Boeotia. There have been sound strategic causes for this. Boeotia’s plain would give him ample room to maneuver, and it might be favorable to his cavalry. Persian cavalry was wonderful; the Greeks had no cavalry to oppose them. If the Persians went to Boeotia additionally they might use Thebes as a base of provide. The Thebans already had sided with the Persians.
The Spartans and the opposite Greek allies linked up with the Athenians at Eleusis. Within the meantime, Mardonius entered Boeotia at Tanagra and ultimately arrange a fortified camp on the north financial institution of the Asopus River, not removed from the city of Plataea on the foot of Mount Cithaeron.
On the Greek aspect it was determined that Pausanias, a nephew of the heroic Leonidas of Thermopylae, would assume general command of the allied Greek forces. Aristides and Xanthippus have been co-commanders of Athenian forces. A rival of Themistocles, Aristides later labored with him. Xanthippus is legendary for being the daddy of the good Athenian statesman Pericles.
The allied Greek military crossed by means of the mountain passes however didn’t enter the plain; as an alternative, it shaped a defensive position dealing with north within the foothills of Mount Cithaeron. This positioned it on larger floor ideally suited for protection towards cavalry, and rocky spurs protected its flanks. It was the peak of summer time, and the warmth at the moment of yr might be suffocating. Water was important, particularly for a hoplite who wore a heavy bronze helmet and bronze physique armor. Initially, at the very least, the Greeks had entry to the Gargaphia Spring. However they might not enterprise close to the Asopus River due to Persian archers.
The Greek left was anchored by the Spartans, Lacedaemonians, Tegeans, and Thespians, totaling 30,000 males. The middle was held by one other 30,000 males representing a rating of Greek states, together with the Corinth, Arcadia, Mycenae, and Styria. The left was the place 20,000 Athenians, Plataeans, and Megarians took their locations.
As is perhaps anticipated, the Persian military beneath Mardonius was rather more polyglot, drawn from the 4 corners of their huge empire. The core of the military was 60,000 Medians and Persians. This included 1,000 Immortals, who shaped Xerxes’ well-known bodyguard.
The Persians wore colourful tunics and trousers, which the Greeks felt have been effeminate. They wore a flapped headdress or turban referred to as a kurbasa, and only a few wore armor. At greatest, a number of may put on mild scale armor, however most had no physique safety in any respect. Their shields have been made from wicker, which was a determined drawback when coping with Greek swords and spears.
Additionally with Mardonius have been the Bactrians, individuals from the world between the Parmir Mountains and the Hindu Kush within the northeast areas of the Persian Empire. They made wonderful cavalry. Indians have been additionally current, inhabitants of what the Greeks thought-about the sting of the recognized world. The most effective cavalry, apart from the Persians, was the Sacae, which historical past usually is aware of because the Scythians. These hard-riding nomads have been specialists with the Asiatic composite bow.
Herodotus says the Egyptian marines have been one of the best armed and armored of the non-Greek forces. That they had quite a lot of weapons at their disposal, together with naval pikes, axes, and enormous swords. Additionally they wore plaited helmets and cuirasses.
And final, however definitely not least, have been the medized Greeks, the Hellenes preventing on the Persian aspect. As could be anticipated, they have been closely armored warriors with arms and gear just like the allied Greeks on the opposing aspect. As a result of they might be preventing in phalanx trend, they might be a formidable foe in battle.
For a number of days there was a standoff. The Greeks weren’t about to be lured down into the plain, and Mardonius was not going to be silly sufficient to assault a phalanx formation on excessive floor. Keen to interrupt the deadlock, Mardonius despatched in his cavalry to assault the Greek left. There appeared to be a weak level within the Greek line in that space, the place the Megarians have been positioned.
The three,000 Megarian hoplites have been posted close to an space of flatter floor on a spur within the foothills of Mount Cithaeron, which was the geographical boundary between Boeotia and Attica. This made it considerably simpler for the Persian horsemen, who attacked in a number of waves. This was the extremely cellular, hit-and-run tactic through which the Persians excelled. Swarms of Persians would gallop close to the Megarian line and ship showers of arrows into their ranks. After discharging a number of missiles, the riders would retire, solely to get replaced by yet one more swarm of recent cavalrymen.
The Persians, a few of whom apparently spoke Greek, added psychological warfare to their deadly wasp stings. The horsemen shouted that the Greeks have been ladies, hoping to goad them right into a rash advance. The Megarians stood their floor, however the fixed missile assaults have been sporting them down.
Inspired by the small victory over a number of the Persians’ greatest males, the Greeks determined to advance to the northeast, nearer to the river, although it was nonetheless far away. The bottom was undulating and nonetheless favored the protection, although maybe it was not as promising as their earlier place. In any case, the 2 armies as soon as once more turned inactive. For the subsequent eight days, the opposing forces simply checked out one another from a distance.
Each Pausanius and Mardonius consulted the gods. Seers with every military sacrificed animals and examined the entrails for indicators and portents. The gods appeared to favor a static, defensive posture. The divine message seemed to be the next: If both aspect crossed the Asopus River and attacked, there was a danger of catastrophic defeat.
Mardonius in all probability hoped that he might starve the Greeks into submission. The world the place the Greeks encamped had been stripped naked of assets by the Persians. Greek troopers usually carried just a few days rations on marketing campaign; after that they have been anticipated to reside off the land by plunder or buy. As the times dragged on the Greek military turned depending on lengthy provide trains by way of the mountains.
Sanitation should have additionally been an issue. Many hundreds of Greeks have been kind of dwelling in the identical spot, and human waste was in all probability a problem after a couple of days. Torrid temperatures, flies, and excrement would convey a horrible stench and the specter of illness. Against this, Mardonius’ provides have been dwindling, however he was higher off than the Greeks.
Mardonius determined to stage a daring raid behind the Greek strains. A big cavalry pressure slipped out beneath the duvet of darkness and positioned itself close to the doorway of the cross that minimize by way of the mountains. The raiding get together stunned a Greek provide column of 500 transports, in all probability pack animals and carts pulled by lumbering oxen.
The Persians have been of their component, freely utilizing arrows, spears, and swords to complete off the availability practice personnel, primarily slaves, servants, and attendants who have been helpless noncombatants. The Persians slaughtered with out mercy, even killing most of the oxen and pack animals. Some have interpreted this as not mere bloodlust, however an indication of their mounting frustration and sheer boredom of a marketing campaign that appeared infinite.
The lack of the availability practice was a critical blow to the Greek trigger. Ultimately extra provides might be introduced up, however the course of took time, and little question the Greeks felt the pinch within the brief run. Curiously, Mardonius did nothing to comply with up this profitable raid. Maybe he hoped that starvation would additional weaken the bonds that held the Greek alliance collectively. There was all the time the hope, albeit an more and more forlorn one, that a few of the Greeks would come over to the Persian aspect.
Three days after the Persian raid, King Alexander of Macedon made a clandestine look underneath the duvet of night time. He warned the Greeks of an impending Persian assault however suggested them to face quick. This alteration of coronary heart on the Macedonian’s half has by no means been absolutely defined. The allied Greeks ready for a attainable Persian thrust the very subsequent day.
Alexander’s intelligence proved right. The Persian cavalry superior, as soon as once more lobbing arrows and javelins into the Greek ranks. However this harassment was solely the start of Greek troubles. A number of the Persian horsemen rode over to the Gargaphia Spring, fouled it, and instantly afterward blocked it up for good measure.
Right here was the actual disaster of the marketing campaign. The spring had been the one supply of water for the entire Greek military, and there was virtually no meals left. The Greek management determined to fall again to a place in entrance of the city of Plataea. It had recent water, and the Greeks might guard the mountain passes.
The retreat was to be carried out at night time so the Persians wouldn’t detect any motion. However the withdrawal plan fell aside, and the varied Greek models turned considerably scattered. The Spartans have been the final to maneuver off, partly due to an argument between Pausanius and one among his Spartan subordinates, Amompharetus.
Amompharetus thought that any withdrawal, no matter how tactically sound it may be, was tantamount to cowardice. He refused to go away the unique Spartan publish, which put Pausanius in a troublesome place. If he left Amompharetus and his division behind, possibilities have been that they might be reduce off by the Persians and annihilated. Pausanius additionally didn’t need to be accused of abandoning fellow Spartans.
The 2 Spartans began yelling at one another, and the argument grew extra heated. Within the meantime, the Athenians have been nonetheless on or close to the unique left flank. They have been absolutely ready to depart however have been puzzled by Spartan inaction. The Athenians despatched a horseman as a messenger to seek out out what was happening.
When the Athenian courier arrived, the 2 Spartan commanders have been nonetheless arguing. Pausanius did cease lengthy sufficient to guarantee the Athenian messenger that the Spartans have been certainly going to withdraw, appearances on the contrary. A smear of sunshine appeared on the horizon, harbinger of what the Greeks referred to as “rosy fingered daybreak.” Initially the intention had been for the Greeks to retreat underneath the cloak of darkness, however now, because of the arguing commanders, the Spartans must march in daylight.
Realizing he might delay not, Pausanius lastly ordered the primary Spartan physique to march as deliberate. Amompharetus couldn’t consider his eyes; he and his males actually have been being left behind. Pasanius and the primary Spartan forces have been about 10 stades, barely greater than a mile, from Amompharetus when he realized the hazard and reluctantly ordered his males to catch up.
Luck was with the Spartans as a result of the very second Amompharetus rejoined the primary physique, Persian cavalry appeared on the scene. The Spartans ready for battle, their new place being “by the River Moloeis and in an space referred to as Argiopium the place a shrine of Eleusian Demeter stands,” based on Herodotus. The Spartans and the Lacedaemonians and Tegeans with them shaped strong ranks, maybe eight deep, and awaited the Persian onslaught. They in all probability had a considerable variety of calmly armed males with them as nicely.
However Pausanius acknowledged that he was going to be exhausting pressed, so he instantly despatched a messenger to the Athenians to return to his assist in full pressure or “if one thing has occurred to make this unimaginable, we might be a lot obliged should you would ship us your archers,” wrote Herodotus. The Athenians have been certainly on their strategy to help the Spartans once they have been attacked by medizing Thebans.
Herodotus is unusually laconic at this level, merely saying that the “Boeotians [Thebans] fought the Athenians a very long time.” This is able to be a typical hoplite encounter, with opposing forces actually defend to defend. All sides can be armed with hoplite spears, about eight-feet lengthy, with leaf-shaped heads that have been manufactured from iron or bronze.
Over arm thrusts have been efficient, and underarm thrusts might strike at an enemy’s decrease physique and legs. When spears have been damaged, recent weapons have been introduced up from the rear. The Greeks referred to as this shoving tactic othismos. Opposing sides would mass collectively whereas preventing, an entire seething mass of densely packed humanity, thrusting, pushing, and shoving its method ahead.
A hoplite battle was a nightmare for the person Greek soldier. His bronze Corinthian helmet offered good safety, however his listening to was muffled, his imaginative and prescient was restricted, and above all air flow was poor. In battle the world was reworked right into a chaotic swirl of impressions that overwhelmed the senses and numbed the feelings. Screams of the wounded combined with shrill warfare shouts, the thud of defend on defend, and the metallic clang of spear factors and swords hammering bronze helmets and cuirasses.
Lastly, the Thebans broke and ran. As soon as a phalanx formation was disordered, its troopers have been extremely weak. The lads of Athens had gained a terrific native victory, however their triumph was considerably eclipsed by the next Spartan stand towards the Persian important forces. Mardonius himself arrived on the scene accompanied by the Persian infantry.
The Persians tried to melt the Spartans up by sending showers of arrows into their packed ranks. Their helmets and cuirasses afforded some safety, however so many tons of of arrows rained down inevitably some deadly shafts hit uncovered arms, legs, and necks. A fortunate shot may even hit the face by way of the helmet’s slender entrance opening.
Pausanius provided animal sacrifices to the gods even because the battle raged. There was a temple of Hera within the neighborhood, and Pausanius actually confronted the distant constructing and provided a private prayer. If should have accomplished the trick as a result of when recent entrails have been learn the indicators and portents have been now favorable.
Inspired by this, the Spartans switched to the offensive. The Persians fought with talent and braveness, however their brief spears, relative lack of physique armor, and wicker shields put them at an obstacle. The tide started to show in favor of the Greeks. Then, the Greeks actually received fortunate. A Spartan named Arimnestus noticed Mardonius himself mounted on a powerful charger. In a maneuver harking back to David and Goliath, Arimnestus seized a rock, took cautious goal, and flung it with all his may.
The rock hit Mardonius sq. within the head and killed him outright. The Persian military misplaced coronary heart when its commander was killed. Entire formations started to interrupt and run, many looking for security within the fortified Persian camp throughout the river. The retreat turned a rout; one of many Persian subordinate commanders, a person named Artabazus, fled together with his division and took the street to Thessaly. His hope was to succeed in the Hellespont and residential.
The Greeks briefly laid siege to the Persian camp. The Persians fought with the braveness of desperation, for they knew the Greeks would take few prisoners. For a time, the Persians repulsed the Greek assaults. However ultimately the Greeks scaled the fort’s partitions, and the slaughter commenced.
Mardonius’ nice military, as soon as so highly effective, was decreased to some frightened remnants fleeing for his or her lives. The remaining have been, for probably the most half, lifeless. The Greeks had gained an awesome victory and prevented subjugation underneath a overseas yoke. The golden age of Greece, with all its triumphs and tragedies, was about to start.