- 1 The battle-ax was developed in A.D. 500. The primary model, the francisca, was named after Frankish warriors who used them towards the Romans.
The battle-ax was developed in A.D. 500. The primary model, the francisca, was named after Frankish warriors who used them towards the Romans.
By William McPeak
The shafted ax has been round since 6000 bc, in each peaceable and warlike makes use of. The so-called battle-ax cultures (3200 to 1800 bc) prolonged over a lot of northern Europe from the late Stone Age by way of the early Bronze Age. The primary ax heads have been made from stone and utilized by hand; a wooden deal with often known as the haft made ax wielding simpler. Methods of deal with attachment included wedging, flanging, winging, and socketing. Socketing required the haft to be drilled with a gap to suit a formed stone by means of the haft or on prime of it. Many stony minerals have been used for the top, and the sting was sharpened on each side and double beveled.
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With the invention of metals got here the varied work of accommodating axes for warfare. From relatively blunt faces in rectangular shapes, the ax head took on the acquainted, barely convex entrance edge and tapered again to the blunted butt. By the Iron Age (1000 bc), the wedge-shaped iron ax head was the usual type, drilled close to the butt for hafting. For warfare, the battle-ax was most effective in a light-weight design. Axes with double entrance and rear edges cropped up in some historic cultures however, realistically talking, have been too heavy for actual effectivity.
The Francisca: Battle-Ax of the Franks
The only-beveled edge head was quickly developed. In contrast to its farm implement predecessor, the battle-ax was meant to chop flesh, not wooden. Roman legionaries carried a regular pickax with a brief edge on a 19-inch head and a 30-inch haft. By the fifth century, a battle-ax with a slender, wedge-shaped head, often a flat arch or S-shaped prime aspect with a slightly flat, beveled convex edge of roughly three inches turned again on the heel in a concave sweep on the underside, appeared in northern Europe within the arms of the Franks. This ax was referred to as the francisca (from the Latin phrase for Frank). The Franks made up the western German confederation that may evolve right into a multipart kingdom underneath the Merovingian rulers after which an empire underneath the Carolingian rulers of the seventh and eighth centuries, notably Charlemagne.
The francisca was used each as a throwing and close-combat weapon. The Roman historian Procopius described its use as a throwing weapon by the Franks: “Every man carried a sword and defend and an ax. Now the iron head of this weapon was thick and exceedingly sharp on each side whereas the picket deal with was very brief. And they’re accustomed all the time to throw these axes at one sign within the first cost and thus shatter the shields of the enemy and kill the lads.” Procopius harassed that the Franks threw their axes instantly earlier than hand-to-hand fight, for the aim of breaking shields and disrupting the enemy line whereas wounding or killing enemy warriors. The load of the top and brief size of the haft allowed the ax to be thrown with appreciable momentum to an efficient vary of about 40 ft. Even when the sting of the blade didn’t strike the goal, the load of the iron head might trigger critical damage.
One other function of the francisca was its tendency to bounce unpredictably upon hitting the bottom because of its weight, distinctive form of the top, lack of stability, and slight curvature of the haft, making it troublesome for defenders to dam. It might rebound at opponents’ legs or towards their shields and thru the ranks. The Franks capitalized on this by throwing the francisca in volleys to confuse, intimidate, and disorganize the enemy strains earlier than or throughout a cost to provoke shut fight.
The francisca, after present process modifications of the size of edge, turned common with different Germanic peoples such because the Anglo-Saxons, and made its approach farther north to turn out to be a primary template for the expeditionary Vikings. The Vikings prolonged the francisca ax edge downward an extra inch, with the underside on the heel slicing briefly again horizontally after which turning up right into a deep concave arc. Referred to as the bearded ax, the weapon would bear modifications resembling sweeping into an arc on the heel of the sting. Scandinavian smiths had been working iron-edged weapons, they usually often made the ax head of iron and cast the sting into metal to make it a superior chopping face.
The Norse Battle-Ax
One other Norse fashion of the ninth century returned to the complete arc of convex edge, tapering each the highest and undersides of the top backward in a concave sweep to the haft, typically often known as the shaved ax. This was in all probability the earliest broadax type and enabled a simpler sweeping minimize fairly than a easy chop. Though there have been variations, the broadax continued to be developed from a primary one- or two-pound weapon with a haft of about 1½ ft of ash or oak. This was the widespread type of the European single-hand battle-ax thereafter. The Anglo-Saxon invasions of the fifth century and Viking raids from the late eighth and ninth centuries introduced these early types of the battle-ax to Britain.
By advert 1000, the Danes have been popularizing a shaved ax design with as a lot as 12 inches of curved blade however once more with the within edges deeply concave. This was the Danish ax, with a weight of as a lot as 4 kilos and requiring an extended haft of three or 4 ft for each palms. In 1066, the English met the Norman invaders close to Hastings with their main skilled infantry wielding a Danish battle-ax referred to as the English lengthy ax, which was primarily an early poleax for two-hand use.
The Ax vs Armor
The development of enhancements in edged weapons adopted the development in armor usually. By the late 14th century, plate armor of surface-hardened metal was so resilient that metal sword factors and most concussion weapons grazed off its curved surfaces. Though outlined as an influence or concussion weapon, the battle-ax had a bonus over others of its class, the conflict hammer and the varied designs of the mace and flail. The battle-ax was additionally an edged weapon—a strong one. The varied lengths and arcing edges of its head might inflict some large injury when hanging properly. The recognition of the Danish lengthy ax got here from the drive of its sweeping and chopping blows. A horseman had even higher putting means.
Though the sword nonetheless reigned because the knightly weapon, by the 12th century quite a lot of single-handed battle-axes have been adopted by the noble class of Europe as a horseman’s weapon. Manuscript miniature work of the medieval interval present many a battle-ax cleaving into the helmeted head of a mounted knightly opponent. King Stephen of England took up the battle-ax after his sword was damaged on the Battle of Lincoln in 1141. Richard the Lionheart was supposedly a well-known wielder of the battle-ax. Thirteenth-century chroniclers made the purpose of noting using the battle-ax by the the Aristocracy. James, the second earl of Douglas of Scotland, son of the good patriot James the Black Douglas, used the battle-ax, though he perished on the Battle of Otterburn in 1388. Later, French marshal Breton Bertrand du Guesclin and his companion in arms Olivier de Clisson, future constable of France, each used the battle-ax.
By the late 14th century, the noble knight put apart the battle-ax as a backup to the sword, which had undergone enhancements with extra tempering and narrowing of the pointed blade. Then got here surface-hardened metal. With metal armor to cope with, many returned to the usefulness of the battle-ax. By this time, a primary horseman’s ax advanced with the practical want of an extended haft to make use of whereas sitting astride a horse, the place one might get probably the most out of it. The complete convex edge and swept concave head of the broadax might be used to greatest benefit by performing the so-called draw reduce on horseback. The draw reduce was an arcing overhead stroke of the curved saber blade utilized by the sunshine cavalries of Islam. The outcome was a lethal environment friendly follow-through. The ahead momentum on horseback made the injury that rather more environment friendly. The horseman’s ax had a haft of as much as three ft, often requiring two palms, and a gap bored on the butt of the haft for inserting a leather-based thong for carrying on the saddle and winding on the wrist.
Constructing a Extra Sensible Ax
Within the early 14th century, the battle-ax head was additional modified—however on the reverse finish. The butt of the battle-ax head was flared barely out in a small hammer-like form for extra utility. Archers carried a brief ax with a hammer-like butt to pound in and sharpen stakes for a trench palisade, and it was typically most popular to carrying the standard brief sword. Starting within the late 14th century, the battle-ax started to appear adorned with butt-end options just like the conflict hammer to assist puncture that impenetrable armor. The butt of the top was prolonged with a spike of as much as about six inches, which was used as one other puncturing choice and counterbalance. A well-placed and highly effective hit with the spike might puncture, however the ax’s labored metal edge might put a much bigger slice in armor by itself. An extra choice was a vertical, four-sided spike of six inches extending above the middle of the top. This relatively awkward stabbing weapon was used primarily for delivering the coup de grace to a fallen opponent. Though the again spike turned shorter, the vertical spike fell out of favor as compared with battle-axes and the horseman’s ax.
Extra sensible additions have been at hand. By the early 14th century, some battle-ax heads appeared with brief, downward extensions from the top and alongside the haft to additional safe it. This concept was furthered by reinforcing the haft by riveting metallic bands referred to as langets, extending partially or absolutely down each side of the size of the haft. The langets have been a way of defending the battle-ax head from being sheared from the haft. A simpler answer to that consequence was to place the ax head on an all-iron or metal haft. This appeared in cylindrical and polygonal types across the center of the 15th century. Though heavier, the all-metal ax was additionally environment friendly. For shielding the hand towards glancing and sliding blows, a small metallic disk guard was added on the prime of the ax grip. One thing smiliar in bigger type repeatedly appeared on the two-handed poleax.
“My Kingdom for a Horse!”
At the very least one king favored the battle-ax to such extent as to gamble his kingdom on it. By the later 15th century, after 100 years of preventing between England and France, a civil conflict erupted in England between two homes of the Plantagenets and Lancastrians with a purple rose image and the difficult Yorkists with a white rose. This was the Warfare of the Roses. For greater than 20 years, bloody battles pitting kinfolk towards each other continued after the Yorkists successfully took energy in 1461. In 1483 Richard III seized energy, turning into maybe probably the most reviled monarch in English historical past.
Revisionists, together with William Shakespeare, made a concerted effort to discredit Richard. In his play Henry VI, Half three, Shakespeare has Richard able to do something to seize the throne: “Or hew my method out with a bloody axe.” The ax reference is related for Richard as a result of proof confirmed that from youth he practiced notably with the battle-ax—a lot in order that his proper arm was supposedly rather more muscular than his left, as was his proper shoulder and again. This in all probability seemed that he was deformed—thus the hunchback custom.
In August 1485 all of it got here to a head at Bosworth Area, the place Richard was defeated by Henry Tudor and a big drive of Welsh archers and French mercenaries. Richard had already efficiently intercepted Henry’s reserve and after the primary shock had entered a swirling melee. He cleaved his method with shocking velocity towards the frightened Henry, who was surrounded by bodyguards, earlier than his horse turned mired within the mud and the king threw down the ax and drew his sword for higher attain. He was lastly surrounded by an ideal mass of Welsh spearmen and reduce down. Richard died bravely on the battlefield, crying out: “Treason! Treason!”—not, as Shakespeare had it: “A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!”
Changed by the Sword and the Gun
Each all-metal and picket haft battle-axes moved into the 16th century however have been more and more upstaged by extra a flexible array of swords: infantry and cavalry sabers, curve-bladed brief swords, and broad swords. However the all-steel battle-ax, often with out the vertical spike, did take pleasure in some splendor within the artwork of chiseled grips and engraved and etched blades for parade and ceremonial makes use of through the 16th and early 17th centuries. The battle-ax was nonetheless a well-liked secondary weapon in japanese Europe. Ornately chiseled all-steel battle-axes have been common cavalry weapons with the Ottoman Turks within the 16th century and into the 18th century within the Center East and India. There they have been referred to as the tabar and had extra curvature on the sting than Western designs. However for Europe as an entire, practicality centered on the battle-ax transformation into two-handed types—the various pole arms and employees weapons with ax heads: poleax, Scottish lochaber ax, Russian bardiche, and numerous longer halberds.
Comparable weapons have been nonetheless a selection on 17th and 18th century battlefields, though firearms now dominated the day. In North America, commerce axes with the Viking head turned the brand new weapon of selection for Native People, changing their wooden and stone tomahawks. Hand-to-hand fight with the tomahawk would by necessity turn out to be a talent developed by frontiersmen in the course of the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. The U.S. Navy’s boarding ax of the late 18th century appeared just like a brief bearded ax, with three or extra sharp tooth on the backside again aspect of the sting to rake up and clear downed rigging and burned wreckage. By the 19th century, the standard broadax software was utilized in camps and on battlefields by sappers and miners and at sea for onboard duties. In trendy occasions it has mainly been used for engineering duties.
Of all of the impression and concussion weapons of army historical past, the ax stays an essential device, whether or not on the battlefield, within the forest, at throwing competitions, or just within the yard for the extra peaceful pursuit of gardening.