The Soviet Secret Police massacred hundreds of Polish Military officers within the Katyn Forest and tried to hide the slaughter.
by Richard Rule
On September 17, 1939, within the wake of Hitler’s invasion of Poland, the Soviet Pink Military crossed the Polish frontier from the east. Inside 10 days, the valiant Poles have been utterly overwhelmed and compelled to give up.
The various plots to assassinate the madman chargeable for the demise of hundreds of thousands…
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Partitioned between Germany and Russia, 77,000 sq. miles of Poland had now fallen into Soviet arms. Within the months that adopted the invasion, Stalin dissolved the Polish state and unleashed his safety police, who, appearing with out restraint, orchestrated a marketing campaign of terror to suppress all resistance.The very material of Polish society was quickly being systematically torn to shreds, whereas over 1.5 million Poles have been deported, arrested, or executed to facilitate the Soviet takeover of the nation.
Soviet Premier Josef Stalin’s designs on the lads of Poland’s defeated military have been no much less frightful, and he decreed that the 240,000 Polish officers and males in captivity have been to be handled as political prisoners. To this finish the NKVD, the Soviet secret police, created a Directorate of Prisoners of Warfare, beneath which a lot of the enlisted males discovered themselves dispatched to labor camps deep contained in the Soviet Union.
The officers, nevertheless, have been to be dealt with in a unique method. At the least half have been positioned within the “particular” prisons that had been created on the grounds of former Orthodox monasteries at Kozelsk, Starobelsk, and Ostashkov. Right here, these males, acknowledged as Poland’s elite, have been to bear a rigorous “re-education” program incorporating prolonged interrogations and fixed political agitation.
Stalin’s murderous designs on japanese Poland, nevertheless, have been thrown into chaos by Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. The complete political panorama of Japanese Europe was to vary as soon as once more as three million German troops poured by means of occupied Poland and into the Soviet Union itself. Stalin, a longtime antagonist of the West, all of a sudden discovered himself aligned with different nations already at struggle with Germany. In a dramatic flip of occasions, he now discovered himself allied with the Polish government-in-exile in London.
It was an uneasy alliance, however extremely, now confronted with a standard enemy, Polish authorities and the Soviet Union agreed to type a Polish Military on Soviet territory drawn from the Polish prisoners interned contained in the Soviet Union. The gates of over 138 Russian jail and labor camps have been abruptly thrown open, permitting tens of hundreds of emaciated Polish prisoners to make their strategy to a set level at Buzul’uk the place they might be a part of with their new Polish commander, Common Wladyslav Anders.
With so many males arriving every day from all elements of the Soviet Union, Common Anders desperately wanted officers to arrange and course of the troops, however unusually, only a few appeared. When the camps had emptied and numbers have been finalized, the Poles found that roughly 15,000 males, principally officers and specialist NCOs, have been nonetheless lacking. Regardless of repeated Polish inquiries, the Soviets claimed to haven’t any information of their whereabouts; not even officers of the infamous NKVD, who maintained meticulous data, might shed any mild on their destiny. Stalin’s unbelievable view was that that they had escaped to Manchuria!
For therefore many males to easily vanish inside the Soviet jail system was incomprehensible to the Poles, and Basic Anders instantly established a search group to seek out his troopers. The Russian authorities have been removed from useful, however Anders’ group quickly established that a lot of the lacking males had been held within the prisons at Kozelsk, Ostashkov, and Starobelsk. Info relating to the prisoners held at Ostashkov and Starobelsk was scant, however the Poles discovered that within the spring of 1940 the jail at Kozelsk had been systematically emptied and the prisoners taken underneath heavy NKVD guard to a location close to Smolensk.
What turned of them from there remained a thriller. The tireless search continued, however not a hint of the lacking males was discovered. That they had merely vanished. The Soviets have been saying nothing, however Polish authorities in London suspected foul play.
Greater than two years would cross earlier than a report from a Wehrmacht unit stationed within the Katyn Forest 12 miles west of Smolensk discovered its strategy to the desk of Germany’s Propaganda Minister, Dr. Josef Goebbels, in February 1943. Inside a short while of studying the contents of the message, Goebbels had German radio broadcast to the world that that they had found the mass graves of over 10,000 Polish officers within the Katyn Forest. The Germans claimed the victims, who had every been sure and executed with a shot to the again of the top, had previously been prisoners of the Pink Military and murdered in chilly blood by Soviet safety forces.
The Soviets vehemently denied the allegation, stating that the Nazis have been clearly making an attempt to cowl up their very own atrocity by blaming the Soviet Union. Soviet authorities claimed that in 1941 the Polish prisoners had fallen into the palms of the invading Germans and have been in truth their prisoners. This stark revelation from Moscow left Polish authorities astounded; for almost two years that they had been led to consider that the Soviets had no information of the lacking males. Now, they have been claiming in any other case.
Polish suspicions have been additional fueled by the situation of the graves deep contained in the Katyn Forest. The Poles had recognized that this location had for years been often utilized by Stalin’s safety forces as an execution website to remove those that had opposed or displeased the Kremlin.
Most of the London Poles started to suspect that the Katyn killings have been the work of the NKVD, however Nazi atrocities in Japanese Europe left few prepared to consider the Goebbels model of the invention. It appeared doubtless that the Germans have been utilizing the Katyn bloodbath to destabilize the Allied camp, and affirmation that the bullets used within the execution have been of German manufacture served to strengthen the Soviet argument that the Nazis have been, the truth is, accountable. The Polish authorities in London weren’t satisfied. German corporations had provided ammunition to many countries earlier than the struggle, together with the Soviet Union.
Removed from being glad with the Soviet rationalization, the Poles contacted the Worldwide Pink Cross in Geneva, looking for an neutral investigation. Upon making their request, they have been astonished to study that the Germans had made an analogous submission lower than an hour earlier than. Maybe delicate to the political machinations in play over the matter, the Pink Cross made it clear that no inquiry might be undertaken until they acquired an identical request from the Soviets.
Goebbels Delight; Stalin’s Fury
With political storm clouds constructing over the Western alliance, an outraged Stalin believed the Germans and Poles have been now cooperating with each other. Goebbels was delighted. That is precisely what Berlin had needed, and he counted on a swift and damaging response from the Kremlin. He was to not be disenchanted.
Stalin, who had no intention of calling for an investigation, tersely demanded the Poles publicly declare their perception that the Germans have been responsible of the crime. Not surprisingly, the Poles refused. As an alternative, they issued a press release that intentionally prevented singling out who they thought was liable for the bloodbath at Katyn and merely condemned aggression towards Polish residents. The ink had barely dried on the Polish assertion earlier than Stalin vented his anger.
By mid-1943, the struggle had clearly begun to show towards Germany, and the destabilizing fallout from the Katyn affair was a harmful and unwelcome distraction for the Western Allies. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill tried to defuse the state of affairs by encouraging the Poles to drop the matter, reasoning, “If they’re lifeless, nothing you are able to do will convey them again.”
Determined to restore the breach within the Allied entrance, Churchill assured Stalin that the Poles had not collaborated with the Nazis and have been nonetheless prepared to work with the Soviet authorities. The British Prime Minister’s placating maneuvers, nevertheless, had come too late— Stalin wouldn’t change his thoughts and proceeded to formally break diplomatic relations with the London Poles and arrange a puppet Polish authorities in Moscow.
With the Allied camp fracturing over the Katyn disclosure, Goebbels drove the wedge deeper by instigating his personal public inquiry headed by an unbiased worldwide fee of distinguished forensic specialists drawn from impartial nations. To reinforce the notion of impartiality, Goebbels invited a 12-person medical group from the Polish Pink Cross (which secretly included members of the Polish Underground) together with journalists from quite a few nations, together with Sweden, Holland, Belgium, and Hungary. Granting the reporters unfettered entry to the location, Goebbels was doing every part in his energy to make sure that Katyn remained on the worldwide stage so long as potential.
The Poles on the investigating staff dismissed out of hand the Germans’ air of ethical indignation over the killings and refused to do interviews for radio, make anti-Soviet statements, or tour Polish POW camps and lecture the prisoners on the Katyn atrocity. Their sole goal was to determine the murderers and move the knowledge again to London.
The annoyed Germans determined to have Polish and different Allied prisoners flown to the location within the hope that they might be extra inclined to make the “applicable” observations for propaganda, however they, too, refused to cooperate. Lastly, in a blaze of German orchestrated publicity, delegates from the worldwide fee, the Polish delegation, and a German Particular Medical-Judiciary Fee started the macabre and grisly enterprise of inspecting the burial pits.
Eight graves have been opened and located to differ in depth from six to 11 ft, holding 10 to 12 layers of our bodies rigorously organized face down, one on prime of the opposite. The victims had their arms secured behind their backs with white Soviet-made twine and have been shot behind the top. A lot of our bodies have been discovered to have puncture wounds in keeping with the four-sided bayonet utilized by the Soviet army.
In a distressing discovery, a number of the youthful officers who had maybe vocally resisted appeared to have had sawdust or rags stuffed of their mouths. Close by, the our bodies of Soviet civilians executed a few years earlier have been additionally unearthed, and it was famous that they have been sure in similar style to the Poles.
The Nazis had initially introduced of their broadcast that 10,000 our bodies had been discovered, however regardless of efforts to influence the Polish delegates to corroborate this determine the ultimate tally was lowered to roughly four,443. The wealth of private gadgets—letters, diaries, and identification disks—discovered confirmed that the victims have been from the POW camp at Kozelsk. There was little question the knowledge was genuine, as a lot of it needed to be forcibly eliminated by chopping via pockets that had rotted closed.
Among the many skilled troopers executed, the investigators additionally discovered 20 college professors; 300 physicians; a number of hundred legal professionals, engineers, and academics; and greater than 100 writers and journalists. All had been reserve officers referred to as to the colours in the course of the German invasion.
The Polish group, which had hoped the Katyn discovery was a German hoax, was surprised to study that the our bodies of the Kozelsk prisoners have been actually there. The households of these lacking from Starobelsk and Ostashkov have been gripped by paralyzing worry. Had their males suffered the identical destiny? No one knew.
The important thing to the entire investigation shortly got here to depend upon establishing the date the bloodbath had taken place. The unbiased findings of three investigating groups decided from the situation of the our bodies, the paperwork discovered, and the age of the timber that have been planted over the graves, that the our bodies had been within the floor for almost three years. The groups positioned the date of the executions someplace across the spring of 1940, which was a yr earlier than the German invasion and at a time when the world was underneath the management of the NKVD.
This revelation was explosive and ignited public outrage on each side of the Atlantic. Whereas the British and American governments trod warily across the Katyn difficulty, the likelihood that one Allied authorities had truly murdered a lot of the officer corps of one other had shocked the world and left the general public demanding solutions.
It was a troublesome place for the Western leaders. With the tide of the warfare having turned towards the Nazis, that they had no want to gasoline an inner quarrel to disrupt their relationship with Stalin. Wanting past the Katyn controversy, the Western Allies didn’t need to jeopardize the potential of Soviet troops becoming a member of them within the Pacific Warfare towards the Japanese and, as such, publicly accepted the Soviet countercharge that the Germans dedicated the crime.
Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt secretly harbored suspicions of Russian guilt, however neither establishing the id of the murderers nor finding the whereabouts of the 10,000 Polish officers nonetheless lacking seemed to be of their greatest pursuits. They selected to view it as a matter of concern for the Poles alone to cope with.
The political fallout from Katyn had not achieved the decisive cut up in Allied unity that Goebbels had predicted or hoped for, however he noticed the rising rift with unbridled delight and famous in his diary, “The Poles are given the brush-off by the English and People as if they have been enemies.”
When the Smolensk area was reoccupied by Purple Military troops in September 1943, Soviet authorities started their very own inquiry into the destiny of the Poles. With no overseas representatives or Polish communists initially invited, the Soviet delegation, referred to as the Burdenko Fee after the surgeon who chaired it, instantly went to work discrediting the findings of the three earlier investigating groups.
The 500 Russian Staff who had Carried out the Macabre Activity have been Themselves Shot and Buried.
One of many first duties undertaken involved the small cemetery established in Katyn by the Polish Pink Cross for the disinterred our bodies. With little ceremony or rationalization, it was instantly destroyed by NKVD personnel.
The Burdenko Fee’s subsequent report on the bloodbath said that the murdered prisoners had actually been finishing up street development close to Smolensk till captured by the Germans, who discovered them too troublesome to regulate. In line with the Soviets, in the course of the fall of 1941 the Germans had run out of endurance and in nice secrecy executed all the Poles.
This declare was supported by native Russian witnesses, who said that vans full of Polish prisoners have been seen driving into the forest, adopted a short while later by the sound of gunfire. This was confirmed by the German-appointed mayor of Smolensk, B.G. Menshagin, who confided to a colleague that the Nazis have been exterminating the Polish prisoners within the Katyn space.
The Soviet report said that the Germans had exhumed the our bodies in 1943, eliminated all documentation past April 1940, after which reburied them. The 500 Russian staff who had carried out the macabre activity have been themselves shot and buried. Some weeks later, a staged discovery of the Polish graves was carried out by Wehrmacht troops and instantly labeled as a Soviet atrocity. The delegates who shaped the German commissions have been stated to have fabricated proof beneath Nazi coercion to incriminate the Soviets.
Nobody doubted the Germans have been able to the murders at Katyn; that they had completed far worse in Poland and elsewhere, however observers have been puzzled as to why the Soviet report ignored key factors with out rationalization. First, if the lads have been murdered in September 1941, which was a really heat time of the yr, why have been the bulk clad in heavy winter coats? Second, if the Poles had spent 16 months in a labor camp, why didn’t the officers’ extremely polished leather-based boots present indicators of wear and tear and tear according to street development?
In line with those that visited the location, the boots on the our bodies have been in wonderful situation, and the heels weren’t worn. Lastly, if the lads had fallen into the palms of the Germans in June 1941, why hadn’t the Soviets admitted this when the seek for their whereabouts first started some years earlier? The various inconsistencies inside the report left the Poles deeply troubled, however with none onerous proof there was little prospect of unraveling the reality till after the struggle.
With the Katyn area now again in Soviet palms, Goebbels ensured that the proof already in German palms was preserved in any respect prices. The letters, diaries, and different private gadgets have been put in 9 picket crates and brought to the Polish Institute of Forensic Drugs in Krakow for processing and additional evaluation.
In shut contact with their countrymen in London, members of the Polish Underground have been inspired to view precisely what the Germans had collected. A variety of resistance males managed to intently look at quite a lot of the fabric and famous that the majority diary entries abruptly ceased throughout April and Might 1940. Analysis additionally revealed that this era coincided with the time the lads had stopped writing letters residence. With the German military being pressured again towards its personal border, the Poles have been determined to steal the packing containers earlier than they have been moved out of attain or fell into the arms of the advancing Soviets. Sadly the theft was thwarted on the final second.
It appeared the final earthly possessions of the murdered Polish officers had now develop into a number of the most wanted gadgets in Japanese Europe. Stalin, nevertheless, was glad that the Purple Military’s contribution to defeating the Nazis would make it unlikely that the West would dare confront him over the Katyn matter after the conflict. Nonetheless, when Krakow fell to his troops, Stalin had brokers instantly scour the town for the containers. The Germans, nevertheless, had already spirited them to Breslau, Germany.
By Might 1945, each the Soviet safety police and Polish Underground have been in scorching pursuit of an SS detachment that was transporting the cargo by means of Germany. The SS troops received so far as Radebaul close to Dresden, however with the Purple Military now just a few miles away the bins and their contents have been destroyed by hearth. Nothing survived. In the meanwhile, the matter of the Katyn bloodbath was misplaced among the many euphoric worldwide celebrations of Nazi Germany’s defeat.
On the Nuremberg trials, the Soviet Union was handed the duty for prosecuting the Germans for his or her crimes towards humanity in Japanese Europe. Regardless of Stalin’s secret demand for sanitized disclosure of the Soviet Union’s personal questionable wartime conduct, the Soviet prosecution group surprisingly included the matter of Katyn within the formal indictment towards the Germans. Neither the American nor the British prosecutors have been happy by its inclusion and made their considerations recognized to their Soviet colleagues. They believed the Soviets not solely lacked credible witnesses to help their case however have been making a grave error in judgment in the event that they anticipated that the courtroom would settle for on face worth the Russian authorities report on Katyn as proof of German guilt.
Numerous the American and British prosecutors had already learn the Soviet doc, and regardless of its air of nice realism they knew it to be false from starting to finish. Fearing that the Katyn affair might result in a serious embarrassment in open courtroom, they tried to argue the Soviets out of their folly, however the latter have been unmoved. Katyn stayed within the indictment.
Observers suspected that the Soviet staff had little selection however to prosecute the Germans for such a extensively publicized “Nazi” atrocity. Silence over the matter would have merely fueled the notion that the Soviets had, the truth is, dedicated the crime. The German defendants at Nuremberg might scarcely consider the Soviets have been together with Katyn within the trial. They eagerly awaited the showdown over the bloodbath, they usually anticipated it to point out the world that lots of Stalin’s henchmen ought to be sitting alongside them within the dock.
The listening to on the Katyn bloodbath commenced on July 1, 1946. The Soviet group proposed to cope with the matter of Katyn based mostly solely on the “proof” contained inside their very own report and petitioned the courtroom to bend the principles of proof to make their very own state’s report binding.
The Soviets’ crude try and brusquely sweep the crime into the lap of the Germans with out additional dialogue threatened to trigger the proceedings to devolve right into a judicial circus. German counsel opposed the transfer and gained a ruling permitting all sides to current three witnesses. Not surprisingly, two very totally different variations of the story have been aired in courtroom.
The Soviet case hinged on establishing the date of the executions, they usually introduced ahead a Bulgarian pathologist, Physician Marko Markov, who had been a member of the worldwide investigation workforce arrange by the Germans in 1943. What was not extensively recognized was that after the struggle Markov had been arrested by Soviet safety police as an enemy of the individuals for being a signatory to the report incriminating the Soviet Union of the murders. Markov had endured months of imprisonment for aiding the Germans and had nearly come straight from his jail cell to Nuremberg to testify.
Within the witness field, Markov recanted his unique claims, saying that his findings have been defective and had been made underneath duress. He was now adamant that the forensic proof indicated that the our bodies had been within the floor for not than 18 months, a declare supported by a Russian pathologist named Dr. Prosorovsky, who had been a member of the Soviet fee. The shootings, they claimed, had taken place within the autumn of 1941 and had been carried out by the German Employees Engineer 537 unit commanded by a “Lieutenant Colonel Arnes.” The Soviet group was assured that coupling the disclosure of the German unit accountable with the skilled testimony of their witnesses had successfully laid the blame squarely on the ft of the Germans. The tactic, nevertheless, was about to rebound on them.
A Innocent Bloodbath?
In a exceptional improvement, German protection counsel produced the very officer recognized as having been liable for the murders. His look in courtroom not solely stunned the Soviets however introduced into query the accuracy of their whole case. The Wehrmacht officer, Colonel Aherns, not “Arnes,” had commanded the 537th Alerts Regiment, which occupied the Katyn space in late 1941. The German officer, who had volunteered to testify, endured rigorous cross-examination by the Soviets however was capable of exhibit that Soviet studies figuring out his males because the culprits was incorrect.
In 1941, Colonel Aherns’ males have been deployed within the Katyn Forest, however his overstretched regiment had lacked the logistical help, manpower, and weapons to undertake executions on such a scale. The Soviet prosecutors then tried responsible an Einsatzgruppe extermination unit, which was within the within the district within the autumn of 1941, however as soon as once more they lacked the proof to attach it with the murders. To the acute discomfort of the complete Allied prosecuting workforce, the Soviet case had utterly foundered.
With the Soviet incapability to conclusively show German guilt, the German protection counsel pressed the courtroom to find out who ought to then be made liable for the bloodbath. The reply was brief— nobody. It was made clear to the German barristers that if Nazi guilt for the crime couldn’t be confirmed it was not the perform of the courtroom to search for the murderers elsewhere. With the Germans absolved of blame, Katyn was abruptly dropped from the proceedings.
When the ultimate judgment at Nuremberg was ultimately delivered on November 1, 1946, the fees referring to the Katyn bloodbath have been excluded with out rationalization.
The omission of the Katyn Forest bloodbath, compounded by the peculiarly inept Soviet dealing with of the case, outraged the Polish group. The Poles knew that there was copious proof out there to find out the id of the killers had the tribunal insisted on a extra thorough investigation. In the course of the warfare, Polish soil had soaked up the blood of hundreds of thousands of overseas victims whose murders had been, indirectly, avenged by the Worldwide Army Tribunal at Nuremberg. Nevertheless, the murderers of their very own army elite had intentionally been left unrevealed and unpunished with out protest.
In his memoirs, Churchill stated of Katyn that the victorious governments determined that the difficulty ought to be prevented. Postwar relations made it clear that so as to safe the cooperation of Stalin within the group of the United Nations the matter would by no means be probed intimately.
Within the years following the conflict, Katyn was a forbidden matter in Poland, erased from the nation’s official historical past. Regardless of the censorship, the bloodbath itself and the destiny of the opposite 10,000 males lacking from the Ostashkov and Starobelsk camps remained an open wound that refused to heal. Many Polish historians and personal residents, buoyed by compelling proof from Western sources, moved to have the crime investigated additional. Nevertheless, the communist authorities of Poland refused to countenance something aside from the official Soviet model that, since 1943, had blamed the Germans for the killings.
For 50 years, the Soviet information on Katyn remained closed till the period of Mikhail Gorbachev and glasnost in 1987. It was then that a joint fee was shaped to research “clean spots” within the troubled historical past of the 2 nations.
Lastly, in October 1990, the Soviet premier solemnly handed the Polish management a folder containing paperwork outlining the chilling fact. The NKVD, on Stalin’s direct orders, had been chargeable for the killings.
As many had suspected all alongside, the bloodbath was not a rogue secret police motion however a rigorously and formally sanctioned operation that commenced quickly after the cessation of hostilities with Poland in 1939. The principal targets have been the Polish officers held within the three camps at Kozelsk, Ostashkov, and Starobelsk, who have been at the moment enduring an incessant barrage of Soviet propaganda and political re-education. Stalin didn’t really feel threatened by the rank or army bearing of those males, however fairly their standing because the skilled and army elite round whom a resurgent, unbiased Poland might emerge.
From October 1939 to February 1940, the prisoners had been subjected to prolonged interrogations which, in impact, shaped the idea of a variety course of to find out who would stay and who would die. Aside from a couple of hundred prisoners, the NKVD categorized the bulk as “hardened and uncompromising enemies of Soviet authority.”
That was all the rationale Stalin wanted, and on March 5, 1940, he signed an order condemning 21,857 prisoners to dying. Each morning at 10 am, the camp commandant at Kozelsk can be contacted by NKVD headquarters in Moscow with an inventory of prisoners to be moved that day. These chosen have been taken to a close-by railway station and transported to an undisclosed vacation spot.
Within the early hours of the morning, the primary of the Kozelsk prisoners have been detrained at a small station close to Smolensk and, underneath the supervision of a grim-faced NKVD colonel, bundled right into a bus with whitewashed home windows. They have been then taken alongside a street main into the Katyn Forest.
Arriving on the vacation spot, the Poles emerged from the bus and every was grabbed by a guard. The prisoners have been led to the sting of the pit, and on the command of an NKVD officer the shootings started.
Because the graves crammed with a whole lot after which hundreds of males, the executioners have been pressured to climb down and rearrange the our bodies to acquire a fair distribution. Through the subsequent 4 weeks, the remainder of the lads at Kozelsk have been murdered both in Katyn itself, within the basement of the NKVD headquarters in Smolensk, or at a close-by abattoir in the identical metropolis.
With the ugly process accomplished, the final of the pits was coated with soil, and younger pine saplings have been planted over the mounds. Much less element is understood concerning the executions of the opposite 10,000 males besides that their destiny was as last and absolute as these of the lads from Kozelsk. Controversy nonetheless surrounds the precise places, however the three,841 males from the Ostashkov camp have been believed to have been shot at Dergacki, close to Kharkov, and 6,376 from Starobelsk have been killed close to Bologne.
The bloodbath of the 15,000 males, not together with greater than 7,300 different anti-Soviet army prisoners that have been murdered, had been deliberate and carried out with nice velocity, secrecy, and talent after which coated up with an equal diploma of shameful overt and covert help from different nations.
Whereas the reality behind Stalin’s far-reaching killing fields and the circumstances surrounding the destiny of the lacking males had been lastly laid naked, the place mostly recognized with the murders will in all probability all the time stay the Katyn Forest. It was the scene of solely one in every of many cold-blooded mass executions dedicated throughout a conflict whose enduring legacy was the savage remedy inflicted upon noncombatants and prisoners alike.
Regardless of the Soviet Union’s remorseful disclosure of the details behind the bloodbath, its assurances that any perpetrators nonetheless dwelling can be delivered to justice stays unfulfilled. Thus far no former member of the Soviet army or NKVD has ever been arrested or charged with the killings.
Richard Rule is a veteran of the Australian Military who has written a number of books, works in gross sales administration, and enjoys fly fishing. He writes from his residence in Heathmont, Victoria, Australia.