- 1 The submarine USS Rasher proved to be the scourge of Japanese delivery within the South Pacific.
- 1.1 A Uneven Sector for the Rookie Crew
- 1.2 Evading Two Destroyers
- 1.3 Taking Out a Tanker
- 1.4 Noticed Twice
- 1.5 Willard R. Laughon Takes Command
- 1.6 One other Kill for Rasher
- 1.7 Rashers‘s Subsequent Tour
- 1.8 “Hogging the Present”
- 1.9 Bombers Overhead
- 1.10 “Take Her Deep!”
- 1.11 Unconfirmed Kill
- 1.12 Two Kills, One Credit score
- 1.13 The Battle of Buru
- 1.14 Turning the Japanese Again from Biak
- 1.15 Virtually Misplaced at Sea
- 1.16 The Most Productive Torpedo Volley in Historical past
- 1.17 52,667 Tons
- 1.18 18 Ships Sunk
The submarine USS Rasher proved to be the scourge of Japanese delivery within the South Pacific.
by Kelly Bell
At 12:30 am, October 9, 1943, Commander Edward S. Hutchinson noticed his first targets as a submarine commander. His boat, USS Rasher, was on her maiden struggle cruise out of Brisbane, Australia, and each man in her was looking forward to his first style of blood.
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They have been off Ambon once they sighted a pair of freighters that have been zigzagging in antisubmarine patterns, intentionally making stalking troublesome and protracted, however Hutchinson was tenacious. All through the night time he trailed the careening targets, slowly bringing his boat inside torpedo vary. By the point he was capable of begin his assault it was daybreak. He fastened the targets in his periscope sights and fired a six-torpedo unfold. 4 missed, however the different two ripped open Kogane Maru. The three,132-ton freighter went down swiftly whereas her sister ship blindly dumped depth costs that killed nobody however hapless seamen who had jumped from Kogane Maru. With the surviving ship hurrying for shallow water and her crew probably radioing information of the assault and its location, Hutchinson, exultant over his first kill, turned his sub again to the open sea.
A Uneven Sector for the Rookie Crew
On December 20, 1942, workmen had damaged the ice on the finish of a ramp of greased fir tree trunks main from the dry dock into the Manitowoc River outdoors Manitowoc, Wisconsin. The boat launched that sub-zero day was the U.S. Navy’s Gato-class submarine USS Rasher. Her hull quantity was 269, and she or he weighed 1,806 tons. Her development had commenced the earlier Might four, and she or he was the primary of 28 submersible warships constructed by the Manitowoc Shipbuilding Firm throughout World Conflict II. There have been six 21-inch torpedo tubes opening from the ahead torpedo room, and the after torpedo room brandished 4 such tubes. Throughout every of her fight patrols, Rasher would carry 20 torpedoes.
The 39-year-old Hutchinson, Rasher, and her first crew have been delivered to the Navy on June 7, 1943. By the top of August, all coaching and loading have been full and the sub embarked for Brisbane for a quick refit and fight indoctrination. After these ultimate preliminaries her subsequent date was with the enemy.
New boats with rookie crews have been often despatched to sedate sectors, however for state-of-the-art Rasher and her splendidly educated crew this rule was ignored. Hutchinson and his command would steam into the Makassar-Celebes sector, which was thick with Japanese provide vessels and warships. By September 24, the final preparations have been full, and America’s future premier assault submarine sallied north from Brisbane to begin searching.
Evading Two Destroyers
By October 13, Rasher’s patrol circuit introduced her again to Ambon, and at 1 pm 4 Japanese ships chugged from the harbor whereas a sub-hunting floatplane circled above them. Two of the vessels have been destroyers escorting for a pair of freighters, and when one of many six torpedoes Hutchinson fired at them proved faulty and detonated seconds later, the destroyers have been alerted to the sub’s presence lengthy earlier than her crew had anticipated.
Screaming for his diving officer to go for the depths, Hutchinson additionally ordered full velocity to hasten the method. Passing the 90-foot mark, the People have been thrilled by 4 reverberating studies as their torpedoes slammed into the three,217-ton Kenkoku Maru, sinking her in 11,000 ft of water.
The destroyers commenced depth charging, however Rasher reached the thermal barrier the place sharply differing temperatures in layers of water trigger inaccurate sonar readings. Chief Pete Sasgen counted 24 hole blasts fading away to the west because the annoyed sub hunters couldn’t catch their quarry’s scent. Two hours later the People surfaced to seek out the world abandoned.
Suspecting the destroyers and surviving transport had retreated into the harbor, Hutchinson stayed put for the subsequent 24 hours. His prey by no means reappeared, and the next night time he acquired an intelligence report directing him to the delivery lanes across the Talaud island chain 550 miles to the north. An enemy convoy was anticipated to move by way of this neighborhood about October 17, and the Allied command gave it excessive precedence.
Taking Out a Tanker
Regardless of breakdowns in two of the boat’s 4 diesel engines, the submariners arrived on the Talauds on schedule however discovered solely small sailboats and various fishing vessels. If the fifth-column operatives had been proper a few convoy within the space, it had apparently taken a unique route. The searching turned very poor.
It was 2:30 on the afternoon of October 31 earlier than Hutchinson’s lookouts spied a tanker’s masts poking over the horizon close to the Celebes coast off Watcher Island. It was an previous ship however so laden with crude oil that its decks have been virtually awash. Once more a worrisome floatplane buzzed overhead, so the hunters trailed about seven miles behind their quarry for 51/2 hours till the aircraft needed to depart to refuel.
The ship was evidently headed for the Japanese-held port of Manado, and earlier than it rounded the Minahassa Peninsula, Hutchinson lined up his aft tubes and fired three torpedoes at 10:04 pm. Two minutes and 29 seconds later, two of the warheads impacted and blew the rusty oiler right into a spectacular petroleum conflagration. The vessel turned out to be a lot smaller than the skipper had estimated. The late Koryo Maru had weighed simply 589 tons however had been loaded with probably the most extremely prized cargo afloat.
The hunters now headed north to only above the equator and the Balikpapan-Truk-Palau delivery lanes. On the afternoon of November eight, Hutchinson was within the conning tower making a normal periscope sweep when he observed a column of smoke and a tall mast on the horizon. Barking orders to his males, he stored the goal in sight as he maneuvered his boat into place for a stern assault. A spotter on the tanker’s deck educated his binoculars instantly on the approaching periscope however someway ignored it. An escorting patrol boat was churning about 2,000 yards to the oiler’s port aspect, however Hutchinson gave it little thought as he aligned his ship and shot three torpedoes from 13,000 yards. Two of the fish hit and blew off the previous tanker’s stern. It was the two,046-ton Tango Maru. Sadly for the hunters, this sufferer had been empty and there was no roiling bonfire to punctuate her passage. The submariners wouldn’t have had time to observe anyway.
The patrol boat had been simply 1,000 yards from the sub when the torpedoes exploded, and this time the periscope was seen. Bearing down on the raider at full velocity, the ship started unloading depth fees earlier than the People might attain the temperature gradient. Though a few of the bombs went off shut sufficient to rattle the sub, none have been close to sufficient to wreck her. By 6:39, Hutchinson felt safe sufficient to floor. He discovered the seascape serenely empty.
Late that night time the submariners sighted three extra ships within the Makassar Strait and instantly set out after them, however, at 1am on the ninth, one other vessel popped up on a course approaching the opposite three and converging on Rasher. Hutchinson had been sweeping round in a large arc to assault the targets broadside, however to proceed on this course would convey the newcomer alongside him. If he torpedoed the brand new arrival, his main prey can be warned and escape. He elected to abort his finish run and alter course to strategy the unique targets in a dangerous, high-speed floor cost.
Turning round, Rasher superior straight on the unsuspecting merchantmen within the brilliant moonlight whereas her males primed their final six torpedoes. Because the attackers bore in, the victims inadvertently made the assault simpler by swerving 45 levels left, positioning themselves on both aspect of the submarine, and making for straightforward simultaneous bow and stern photographs. At 1:22 am, the sub spat out 4 missiles from her fore tubes and two from the aft. Seconds later, the right-hand cargo vessel fired a sign flare to alert the escorting destroyer that one thing was afoot. Somebody had seen both the torpedo wakes or the periscope, and the destroyer swung round to counterattack. A handful of randomly dropped depth fees went off removed from Rasher. It was a good swap—all six torpedoes missed. It was time for Hutchinson to go for port.
Willard R. Laughon Takes Command
Following his productive cruise on Rasher, Hutchinson was promoted to command of Submarine Squadron 22. Lt. Cmdr. Willard R. Laughon took Hutchinson’s place. Thirty-nine-year-old Laughon was recent from antisubmarine patrol duties off Bermuda.
Following in depth drilling to assist Laughon and his crew, lots of whom have been newcomers as nicely, mesh right into a easily working unit, Rasher weighed anchor on December 19 with orders to put a minefield within the delivery lanes off Indochina’s Mekong Delta. Following this task, she was to begin a traditional searching patrol.
Late on the night time of January three, 1944, Laughon eased his boat into the shallows off the Indochinese coastal island of Poulo Condore and set out 11 magnetic mines. Because the People moved again towards deep water, they acquired a message from the cryptographic part.
Counterintelligence had discovered of a convoy heading north from Singapore. It was anticipated to move by way of Rasher’s present patrol space round 6 pm on the 4th. Laughon was ordered to rendezvous with sister sub Bluefish and await the approaching tankers. The subs discovered one another with little problem, and Laughon and Bluefish skipper, Commander George Porter, laid plans to assail the convoy concurrently from each side.
The ocean hunters situated their quarry proper the place that they had been advised to anticipate it, and Laughon instantly bore in from the correct and fired three torpedoes on the third ship in line. Seconds later, Rasher was rocked when one of many fish exploded prematurely simply 400 yards into its run. Japanese sailors immediately opened up a wild barrage with deck weapons. As Laughon whipped his boat round to deliver his stern tubes to bear, he heard blasts behind him as Porter attacked one other ship from the port aspect.
One other Kill for Rasher
Within the gathering darkness it was troublesome to attract a bead on the frantically maneuvering targets. Unable to get a firing angle for his aft tubes, Laughon turned towards his meant and charged. At this level, one of many oil-glutted ships exploded in horrific splendor. It was the one Bluefish had shot, and it appeared a minimum of one among Rasher’s preliminary volleys had hit.
As Laughon positioned to complete off the cripple, the presumably undamaged, 10,000-ton Kiyo Maru instantly reduce in entrance of him. In his confusion, this vessel’s helmsman set his ship up for destruction. Rasher launched a half dozen torpedoes on the fats goal and once more was jolted as two extra defective warheads detonated inside seconds. Two minutes and 27 seconds later, one of many 4 operative torpedoes slammed into the tanker.
Surfacing, Laughon noticed a tanker bolting south at full velocity. Yelling for all-ahead, he got down to try to tug forward of the oiler, flip, and hearth from broadside within the basic end-around assault stratagem.
Passing the blazing Hakko Maru, hit minutes earlier by Bluefish, Rasher reached her desired place and swung round to line up her aft tubes. After firing 4 torpedoes from 11/2 miles, the submariners listened intently. Seconds later, two of this unfold exploded prematurely, however not fairly two minutes after that the opposite pair struck squarely. The unlucky tanker went up like a Roman candle, hurling burning crude oil and shreds of the vessel’s hull lots of of yards in each path. Twenty minutes later, nothing was left on the floor besides a burning oil slick.
It turned out this vessel had been the identical Kiyo Maru that Rasher had hit moments earlier. The broken ship Laughon had virtually torpedoed had been Porter’s sinking kill, Hakko Maru, which within the gloom Laughon mistook for Kiyo Maru. A 3rd tanker on this unusually unescorted convoy escaped after taking Rasher’s first shot.
After a quick convention through which they in contrast notes and confirmed one another’s kills (Porter’s Hakko Maru was 6,046 tons), the skippers declared the chaotic, worthwhile engagement completed.
Rashers‘s Subsequent Tour
Late on the night time of January 11 Laughon missed with a four-shot unfold fired at a small freighter convoy off Phan Rang. One of many fish exploded so quickly after leaving the tube that the concussion broke lightbulbs within the sub and knocked paint chips from the superstructure.
As a result of the mines had taken up a lot room, Rasher had been unable to hold a full stock of torpedoes on this patrol and now had only one left. When the skipper knowledgeable COMSUBPAC (Pacific Submarine Command) of the state of affairs, he was ordered again to Fremantle, Australia. In Buton Passage on the night of the 17th, Laughon fired his final shot at a 10,500-ton Aikoku-class cargo vessel, and this torpedo exploded solely 20 seconds after firing. On January 24, Rasher docked in Fremantle’s harbor.
Whereas his crew rested and his boat was serviced, Laughon discovered his subsequent tour was for the Surabaya-Ambon lanes north of Bali. After patrolling there, Rasher was to shift her consideration to the Celebes Islands, north to the Talaud chain, returning by way of the Molucca, Ceram, and Banda Seas. Subs coming back from these sectors reported few unescorted targets and that Japanese destroyers have been doing a greater job of antisubmarine assaults. Additionally, there had been a noticeable improve in air patrols.
This perilous state of affairs was one Laughon must expose his crew to much more than usually, for he was instructed to additionally photograph convoys, their escorts, and coastal fortifications. On February 19, Rasher set out on her third warfare cruise armed with new, improved Mark-14 torpedoes.
“Hogging the Present”
On the 24th, Laughon acquired directions to rendezvous with the submarine Raton, commanded by Lt. Cmdr. James W. Davis, and search the Raas Strait for a pair of provide ships that have been anticipated there on the night of February 25. Early that morning, Rasher and Raton met. After planning to cooperate, they commenced searching simply earlier than 5 pm.
At 5:30, lookouts aboard Rasher noticed the masts of the cargo carriers. As he labored his method forward of the ships, Laughon radioed Davis to tell him of the convoy’s place. Moments after 7 pm, Rasher shot 4 improved torpedoes on the lead goal an on the spot earlier than slewing to the suitable to arrange on the second mark. By the point her killer was on this new heading, the 6,200-ton goal had been ripped extensive open. 4 minutes later she sank. Like an earlier sufferer of this sub, her identify was Tango Maru.
In the meantime, Laughon was receiving a transmission from Raton, informing him that Davis was prepared to assist out in any method wanted. Rasher and her males wanted no help as they lined up on four,797-ton passenger-freighter Ryusi Maru and fired 4 extra fish. One impacted amidships, a second underneath the stack, and a 3rd blasted open the strict. Ryusi Maru was critically overloaded, her Plimsoll line nicely underneath water. Weighty and savaged as she was, it’s shocking she took six minutes to sink.
A few small patrol boats had been escorting the freighters, they usually now looked for survivors within the heavy seas fairly than making an attempt to assault the People. The subs didn’t intrude with the lifesaving operation and steered off in several instructions after Laughon delightedly radioed an apology to Davis for “hogging the present.”
The subsequent morning, Rasher arrived off Cape Mandar and steered via the Makassar Strait at a leisurely clip. There was little to see for nearly every week, however on the night of March 2, the surfaced submarine handed via a flotilla of small fishing boats whose crews evidently reported her to the Japanese.
Bombers started showing the subsequent morning. The primary one didn’t see Rasher as her radar man gave sufficient warning to dive to security earlier than the warplane appeared, however the subsequent one, at 9:54 am, slipped beneath the radar beam by skimming the waves at 300 miles per hour.
Inside 30 seconds, the sub was beneath and plunging. Two bombs exploded far above her as she handed 120 ft. Laughon questioned if the planes could be masking ship actions. About an hour after the second bomber’s move, Rasher surfaced and her males broke out binoculars.
Sharp-eyed Seaman First Class Robert Cashel noticed a skinny column of smoke on the western horizon at 11:50 am. Freighters have been heading southeast, presumably to ship arms, ammunition, and varied provides to the Japanese garrison on the Minahassa Peninsula. Submerging his boat, Laughon ordered full velocity in hopes of chopping off the convoy, which had three escorts. The top-around labored, and the People caught up with two rows of freighters with a torpedo boat on all sides, and one trailing. Overhead was a twin-engine Mitsubishi Ki-21 “Sally” bomber.
“Take Her Deep!”
Approaching from port, Laughon was dutifully snapping photographs via his periscope when the targets abruptly veered south. He later wrote in his report that he surmised the enemy had acquired information of Rasher’s sighting by the planes earlier within the day. The sub was nonetheless eight,000 yards from the ships, and it was unlikely it had been noticed.
Turning south together with his targets, Laughon waited for darkish when the bomber departed to refuel. The hunters surfaced and headed for the convoy at 17 knots however have been noticed by gunners on one of many transports and bracketed in a hail of shellfire from the port escort because it peeled off to assault. The boat chased Rasher 10 miles earlier than turning again. Rasher was proper behind her. Laughon’s radar had malfunctioned, so he determined to barge instantly into the fleet in a shock assault.
Coated by darkness, the People cheekily charged to 1,500 yards from the closest ship, fired three torpedoes, turned proper, and fired three extra on the following vessel. As the primary unfold smashed house, Laughon swung his boat to line up her stern tubes on a 3rd goal, however she was too shut. The stricken vessel was a troop service with plenty of panicked troopers spilling over her railings, and the ship Laughon had hoped to drill subsequent was advancing on him beneath full steam. She was simply 600 yards away and shutting. Worse, one of many escorts was on the best way, her searchlight enjoying madly over the dusky, churning seascape.
The second torpedo salvo had missed, however there was no time to fret about it because the ponderous transport bore down on the sub. “Take her deep! 300 ft! Flood destructive!” rasped Laughon. The huge steamer‘s crew have been rolling depth fees from her decks, and the escort was becoming a member of within the barrage. The bombs started detonating as Rasher handed 180 ft, rattling her however doing little injury. Moments later, she was beneath the thermal barrier and the infuriated Japanese have been dropping their fees on sonar ghosts. The corpse of the 6,484-ton Nittai Maru handed Rasher en path to the underside.
By midnight, all was clear topside, and Laughon surfaced his boat. Passing via a flotilla of lifeboats full of sodden Japanese squaddies whose comrades had been too panicky to rescue, the submariners headed for the delivery lanes off Balikpapan, the place Laughon thought the convoy is perhaps sure.
The People discovered the convoy proper the place they anticipated it and aimed two missiles on the closest ship at three:02 am on March 5. There have been nonetheless bugs within the works, and each torpedoes ran too deep, streaking harmlessly beneath the goal. The freighters’ crews have been nonetheless unaware they have been beneath assault, so Laughon turned his again and shot 4 correctly functioning missiles from the after tubes. At the least two fish hit, setting off the identical pandemonium because the night time earlier than.
Plowing by means of the blazing chaos of explosions, screaming males, and hammering deck weapons, Rasher moved clear and loaded her final 4 rounds, easing again into the fight perimeter the place she was opened up on by two escorts. Laughon hurriedly drew a bead on a 3rd ship, fired the ultimate missile quartet from lengthy vary, and bellowed for a withdrawal. A full 4 minutes later the People heard 4 distinct warhead detonations.
By 6:30, Rasher was away from pursuers and acquired a radio message to return to Darwin for reprovisioning and a fast return to her searching grounds. Whereas in port the crew have been infuriated to study that since that they had not truly seen their victims of the March 5 assaults sink they might not be awarded kill credit for this engagement.
Two Kills, One Credit score
By March 9, the sub was once more outbound. She had simply handed the barrier islands bordering Timor when an important radio message was acquired. Navy codebreakers in Hawaii suspected that Admiral Mineichi Koga was assembling a process pressure of plane carriers, battleships, heavy cruisers, and destroyers at Surabaya, Java. U.S. Admiral Ralph Christie was involved that, being simply 1,000 miles from the Australian mainland, this new anchorage was the final cease earlier than a potential assault on Fremantle-Darwin.
Christie ordered Lt. Cmdr. Chester Nimitz, Jr., son of the Pacific Fleet’s commander in chief, to patrol the approaches to Lombok Strait in his sub, Haddo, and look ahead to a serious sortie. Nimitz’s radar picked up a number of giant ships at lengthy vary, however Haddo was unable to tug inside visible vary.
Laughon was ordered to show west and take up a place above Lombok Strait in case Koga’s fleet got here that approach. If it did, Rasher was to fireside a number of photographs after which sound the alarm. By March 12, Laughon and his sub have been at their publish.
They spent the subsequent two weeks dodging swarming antisubmarine air and sea patrols, and on the 19th uncorked a four-torpedo unfold at a Japanese sub. All 4 missed, and each boats rapidly give up the world earlier than issues acquired testy.
There was nonetheless no signal of Koga’s armada, however on the morning of March 27 sonar detected a distant line of vessels. It was not the anticipated process drive, however a four-ship freighter convoy escorted by 4 minesweepers. Sandwiching the zigzagging targets between Rasher and Panerungan Besar Island, Laughon approached together with his commonplace resolute aggression and fired six torpedoes on the first two ships within the line. One missile hit the primary vessel, 2,750-ton Nichinian Maru, simply behind her stack. 13 seconds later three extra torpedoes mortally wounded the second goal. At this level, Nichinian Maru’s cargo of ammunition ignited and blew her to bits. The opposite vessel went beneath about an hour later.
After the escorts fruitlessly depth charged, Laughon crept shut in an try and snipe on the remaining pair of freighters, however three bombers all of the sudden appeared, and the submariners prudently backed off and made their escape by means of Lombok Strait.
Regardless of seemingly incontestable proof by way of pictures taken by way of the periscope that Rasher had scored two kills on this encounter, postwar analysis based mostly on intercepted Japanese radio visitors credited Laughon and his crew with sinking just one ship, the Nichinian Maru, on this battle.
The Battle of Buru
On March 29, the hunters have been delighted to be ordered again to Fremantle. The Koga disaster by no means materialized. When the Allies assaulted the Marshall Islands, Koga deserted any plans he might have had for attacking Australia, ordering his forces to forsake their bases on Truk and relocate west.
Earlier than the subsequent patrol began, Laughon was instructed to maneuver his boat to Darwin for ultimate preparations. On Might eight, she weighed anchor and steamed north into her favourite searching grounds.
Two days later, Laughon deftly slipped his boat into the center of a convoy off Buru. He drilled two torpedoes right into a tanker and one into her escort, setting the oiler ablaze and crippling her guardian. Nonetheless, so lots of Rasher’s torpedoes missed on this shootout that she was out of them by the point it was over. Though the tanker, 1,074-ton Choi Maru, didn’t sink, her very important cargo of crude oil burned to the final drop.
Following what his crew referred to as the Battle of Buru, Laughon acquired wi-fi directions to open sealed orders. He was to take up a place within the Java Sea off Surabaya. Warplanes from the carriers USS Saratoga and HMS Illustrious can be making an assault on Surabaya on the 17th, and Rasher was certainly one of eight submarines detailed to face by and decide up downed airmen.
No planes went down in Rasher’s space, and after the raid she was ordered again to Darwin for gasoline and ammunition. She arrived on Might 21, and set out once more the identical day on a foray by way of the Molucca Passage.
Turning the Japanese Again from Biak
On the night of the 29th, proper after spectacularly popping open the two,601-ton, gasoline- laden freighter Anshu Maru, Rasher acquired a important message. Sister subs Bluefin and Cabrilla had found a big Japanese process pressure headed for the island of Biak, which Basic Douglas MacArthur’s forces have been desperately making an attempt to wrest from the Japanese. If the Allies might take Biak, they might have a valuable base for his or her bombers that was simply 600 miles from the Palaus chain. Laughon set course for the Talaud Islands, which have been on the fleet’s final reported heading, however discovered nothing. On June 2, he was ordered to Davao Gulf and late that night time got here throughout a part of the flotilla.
The Japanese have been shifting too quick for Rasher to get in vary, however Laughon’s wi-fi report killed the suspense as to the fleet’s whereabouts. Then the remainder of the Biak-bound assault group appeared. Laughon once more sounded the alarm, and was sighted by the warships. Realizing the important factor of shock was gone, the Japanese gave up on the operation and returned to Mindanao. Rasher’s mere presence had helped to guarantee victory on Biak.
The submarine returned to the Celebes Sea. On the afternoon of June eight, the crew celebrated the primary anniversary of their submarine’s commissioning by sinking the four,000-ton tanker Shioya Maru.
On the 14th, Rasher sprayed torpedoes into one other Celebes convoy, sinking the three,183-ton transport Koan Maru. At midday the subsequent day, Laughon put his final two missiles into what he thought was the 5,072-ton Kizan Maru outdoors Ambon Bay, then dove to flee the pair of sub chasers escorting her. Simply earlier than the depth expenses began going off, the People heard a protracted, rumbling explosion that led them to imagine that they had polished off one other sufferer, however once they later surfaced they have been mystified to seek out nothing on the rain-lashed floor.
Regardless of the entire crew listening to the torpedoes explode, adopted by what seemed like a magazine or a gasoline maintain blowing up, Laughon determined to not declare a kill on this newest engagement. On June 23, Rasher arrived at Fremantle.
Virtually Misplaced at Sea
Christie was unwilling to danger his prized hunter on one other patrol, so he indifferent Willard Laughon from Rasher’s complement and assigned him to the employees of the seventh Fleet’s Submarine Command. Laughon arrived at his new posting a star, having commanded one of the crucial well-known subs within the Pacific.
Rasher’s new skipper was veteran submariner Commander Hank Munson. With two Navy Crosses from earlier motion in submersibles, he was the type of fire-eating chief this untouched crew wanted. His efficiency can be devastating on the approaching patrol.
As Japan’s warfare fortunes steadily soured, U.S. subs ranged ever nearer to the House Islands in quest of a shrinking assortment of targets. With the Allied invasion of the Philippines looming, Rasher and Bluefish have been ordered to the South China Sea off Luzon.
Touring individually, the subs embarked for his or her searching grounds on July 29, 1944, arriving August four. As quickly as he reached the rendezvous level (Bluefish arrived a number of hours later), Munson discovered a juicy goal within the four,739-ton passenger-cargo ship Shiroganesan Maru. He approached by slicing simply 700 yards instantly in entrance of two sub chasers escorting the goal. This maneuver was so brazen the Japanese weren’t anticipating it. Drawing a bead from good proper angles at 1,350 yards, Munson fired a half dozen fish, then dove to flee prematurely the approaching depth charging. The undersea mariners heard 5 distinct hits adopted by the metallic screeching of a ship breaking apart.
Moments later, Rasher was virtually misplaced via human error. A rookie torpedo man held two of the ahead torpedo room’s poppet valves open too lengthy after the missiles have been launched, and seawater immediately cascaded into the boat’s fore. Dangerously entrance heavy, Rasher nosed over and commenced an virtually vertical plunge into the mile-deep South China Sea basin. Designed to securely go no deeper than 312 ft, she dove to virtually 500 ft earlier than her males have been capable of degree her by way of exact pumping and blowing.
The Most Productive Torpedo Volley in Historical past
On August eight, Rasher and Bluefish joined forces. Munson and Bluefish’s skipper, Commander Charles Henderson, laid plans that might make this cruise one of many biggest Allied naval victories of the warfare. First the pair of sharks needed to climate a week-long hurricane. The tempest lastly started to clear on the 17th, and Munson acquired a radio report of a giant convoy headed his method from the north. Earlier than contact might be made, the climate closed in once more, making looking doubly troublesome, however at 10:09 pm radar detected the quarry.
A two-column flotilla of greater than 20 Japanese ships was headed instantly at Rasher (she had turn into separated from Bluefish through the storm). By means of a moonless downpour, Munson bore in, swung round, and fired two stern torpedoes right into a gasoline-filled tanker that erupted right into a blinding, 1,000-foot fireball. As escorts opened confused salvos on empty ocean and one another, Munson lined up on the most important goal on his radar display, shot his six bow tubes at her, swapped ends, and fired 4 after missiles on the subsequent largest, then pulled again to observe the outcomes.
In maybe the most efficient single torpedo volley fired by any submarine in historical past, three of the torpedoes from the fore tubes smacked into their mark and set her alight. This primary unfold’s fourth shot missed its goal, however seconds later lucked into an unseen ship past the primary one. Moments after this, three of the aft fish plowed into the starboard hull of the plane service Taiyo. The final stern torpedo missed the service however hit one other beforehand unnoticed vessel behind Taiyo. Munson later described the escorts as “dashing round like rats in a cage,” as their crews looked for what they could have thought was multiple sub.
Taiyo sank like an ax head, and at 11:27 one other line of provide vessels blundered into Munson’s path. He fired his final 4 bow missiles on the main ship, turned and shot the ultimate pair of stern fish on the second vessel. Three of the fore torpedoes hit their mark, an ordnance ship that exploded with such violence it illuminated the storm-lashed Luzon coast like noon. The fourth bow shot malfunctioned, veered proper, and caught a transport 1,400 yards past the late ammunition service. The after torpedoes drilled an enormous cargo ship following the primary one hit.
By this time Bluefish had drawn in vary of the now scattered convoy and attacked two tankers that crossed her path whereas fleeing from Rasher. Additionally, the American sub Spadefish had been monitoring Munson’s radio transmissions and had hurried to hitch the fray. She sank a troop transport chased previous her by Rasher.
At midnight, Munson prowled his boat again to the scene of the primary photographs to see if any targets remained. The ship struck by his ultimate bow shot was limping south with an escort. Munson tracked them on radar till the transport disappeared from the display, presumably sinking. The vessel hit by the 2 stern torpedoes escaped sinking by grounding herself on a close-by seashore. Passing clumps of oil-coated Japanese sailors clinging to overturned life rafts, Munson tracked two extra of his cripples as they headed for Port Curimao’s seashore. He hoped to complete them together with his deck weapons earlier than their skippers might run them aground, however with daybreak approaching he refused to develop into grasping and turned his killer shark for the open sea. The stormy night time was over and had introduced an excellent victory for the People.
The unlucky convoy had been designated HI-71 by the Japanese and was successfully destroyed by the Rasher-led assault. The few ships not sunk or crippled turned again, by no means making it to their assigned vacation spot within the Philippines. The preventing would have been terribly extended had the large haul of troopers, weapons, gasoline, plane, and ammunition been delivered.
On the time the submariners didn’t know the identities of the victims of their devastating nighttime assault. Postwar analysis fastened Rasher’s kills for the night time of August 18-19, 1944, because the 20,000-ton Taiyo, 17,537-ton passenger-cargo ship Teia Maru, 9,849-ton oiler Teiyo Maru, and the ship that ran aground off Port Curimao because the 542-ton freighter Eishin Maru. Rasher and her crew sank at the least 52,667 tons on this patrol, if the August 6 destruction of Shiroganesan Maru is included. Throughout that fiery night time the Japanese additionally misplaced the 6,500-ton tanker Hayasui to Bluefish, and the 9,589-ton troop service Tamatsu Maru to Spadefish. In the course of the four-hour torpedo assault the People sank a minimal of six ships totaling 64,zero17 tons and put a number of extra out of fee.
18 Ships Sunk
It was the type of heroic productiveness Rasher had been a part of since her arrival within the Pacific, nevertheless it was to be a powerful finale. After her Philippine Sea fight extravaganza, she made her approach to San Francisco to be dismantled and rebuilt actually higher than new. She later went on a sixth warfare cruise beneath Commander Ben Adams, and a seventh and eighth underneath Commander Charles Nace, however scored no extra kills on the target-bereft ocean she had helped away from the Japanese enemy. Her confirmed tally at conflict’s finish was 18 ships sunk totaling 99,901 tons. Her precise rating was virtually definitely larger since a number of of her victims doubtless went underneath however have been by no means verified. Different quarry have been broken past restore.
Rasher was as modern and delightful as she was lethal. Her males liked her, however her demise was a lot lower than she deserved. Relegated to auxiliary and coaching duties in peacetime, she was ultimately decommissioned, minimize up, and bought for scrap in 1971.
At the very least the legacy of this remarkably profitable submarine survives. Troopers of all callings want solely to look again on her chronicle for the sort of inspiration that may take them above, past and, typically, under.