60mm mortar Altavilla antitank gun Browning Automatic Rifles Browning rifle C-ration carbine Charles Kelly Commando Kelly Europe European Theater Fidel Castro Fredericksburg General Omar Bradley Good Conduct Medal incendiary grenade M-1 rifle medal of honor medal of honor recipient Mortar Movies phosphorus grenade post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD Rapido River Silver Star Springfield 1903 Rifle Stars and Stripes submachine gun Thompson submachine gun VA hospital Veterans Administration WWII

Warfare History Network » “Commando” Charles Kelly & The First European Theater Medal of Honor

A Russian real estate developer plans to construct a condominium development in close proximity to the Battle of Saipan in 1944.
A Russian real estate developer plans to construct a condominium development in close proximity to the Battle of Saipan in 1944.

A hero in fight, ‘Commando’ Charles Kelly battled demons at house after profitable the Medal of Honor within the European Theater.

by Duane Schultz
A hero in combat, 'Commando' Charles Kelly battled demons at home after winning the Medal of Honor in the European Theater.

He killed 40 Germans in lower than an hour. The subsequent day, he earned the Medal of Honor for killing extra. Commando Kelly did it by turning into a one-man military, holding again scores of German troopers who surrounded the home the place he was trapped with 30 different GIs. He used each weapon he might discover—three Browning Automated Rifles (BARs), a Thompson submachine gun, a Springfield rifle courting from World Struggle I, a carbine, and an M-1 rifle.

“I used to be keen on weapons,” Kelly stated elusively. Then he used an antitank gun, a phosphorous grenade, an incendiary grenade, and even threw 60mm mortar shells out of an higher story window to kill extra Germans.

This story was first seen within the December 2014 situation of WWII Historical past Journal. Order your copy at this time!

In any case that, whereas nonetheless beneath hearth, he then went downstairs to the kitchen, grabbed 4 eggs, broke them into his empty C-ration can, and swallowed them uncooked. He reached for a bottle of champagne and took a drink, then put it down and shot a German sniper up in a tree. Kelly watched him hit the bottom, then he swigged some extra champagne. He stated it tasted like soda pop.

First Medal of Honor within the European Theater

It was September 14, 1943, in the home of the mayor of the village of Altavilla, 20 miles from Salerno in Italy. What 22-year-old Personal Charles Kelly did that day made him well-known, the primary soldier within the European Theater to be awarded the Medal of Honor. He additionally earned two Silver Stars and medals of valor from Italy and Nice Britain, however he by no means positioned loads of worth on any of them. “These medals will simply be a variety of brass after the struggle, and I’ll simply be one other ex-soldier,” he stated.

He was proper about that. The cheering stopped, and the glory didn’t final.

A Exhausting Upbringing

Charles E. Kelly was born on September 23, 1920, one in every of 9 youngsters who grew up in an previous picket constructing down an alley in a rundown neighborhood in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The home had no operating water, electrical energy, or rest room, and all 9 youngsters bunked within the attic. One reporter referred to as it a “decrepit shack.” Charles dropped out of faculty and went to work at an early age. He joined the Military in 1942, and it quickly turned obvious that he was not going to be an excellent soldier when it got here to self-discipline and obeying orders. He went AWOL as soon as—some sources say twice—and as punishment hung out within the stockade. He appreciated to brag that no one ever gave him a Good Conduct Medal.

As soon as in fight, nevertheless, Kelly by no means obtained into hassle. He was a part of the 36th Division, a Texas Nationwide Guard outfit that noticed its first motion just a few days earlier than Altavilla. Generally known as the T-Patchers, the division earned the excellence of main the primary invasion of the European continent when it got here ashore at Salerno on September 9, 1943.

After the beachhead was established, the Germans counterattacked and recaptured Altavilla. The commanding officer of the 36th Division ordered two battalions ahead to retake the city. Personal Kelly volunteered to crawl almost two miles beneath virtually fixed German hearth to report on the enemy defenses established on a hill simply outdoors of city. Kelly then led a three-man patrol to wipe out a German machine-gun nest that was holding up the advance. He killed the machine gunners together with his BAR and confronted as much as 70 extra German troopers who have been closing in. In accordance with the studies of the opposite GIs current, Kelly killed a minimum of 40.

By the top of the day, he was despatched to the home of Altavilla’s mayor, situated within the central sq., to assist defend the city. When the Germans attacked the subsequent morning, Kelly stood at a second-floor window on the rear of the home and commenced to make historical past.

A hero in combat, 'Commando' Charles Kelly battled demons at home after winning the Medal of Honor in the European Theater.

Fame From Fight

That night time, the GIs received orders to tug again. Kelly volunteered to remain behind to provide them masking hearth as they made their means again to American strains. Shortly thereafter, he was promoted to corporal, then sergeant. He fought in a number of extra main battles, together with the ill-fated and dear try by the 36th Division to cross the Rapido River. An article about his exploits at Altavilla appeared within the Military newspaper Stars and Stripes, referring to him as “Commando Kelly.” He was authorised for the Medal of Honor, and it was awarded on March 11, 1944.

When he returned to the USA a month later, the celebrations started. “Commando Kelly Day” was proclaimed in his house city of Pittsburgh. Adulation and acclaim adopted him on a 60-day nationwide warfare bond tour. “I’ll be glad when it’s over,” he stated. “You positive are like a monkey in a cage once you’re on a spot like this.”

The journey was hectic, touring from one metropolis to the subsequent, night time after night time. “5 speeches a day,” he stated, “promote Conflict Bonds and say good issues concerning the 37-millimeter gun. They usually offer you six bucks a day for bills. However we have been in hassle within the struggle and needed to construct morale. They wanted heroes, that’s all.”

Wealth Past Goals

The cash rolled in. Twentieth-Century Fox paid Kelly $25,000 for his life story to be the idea for a film, an quantity equal to $325,000 at present. The Saturday Night Submit paid him $15,000 for an article on his exploits. Job gives and enterprise alternatives mounted from throughout the nation. No matter he needed he might have had.

Commando Kelly was rich past his wildest goals and had alternatives few individuals would ever have, however it turned out that he was a lot better at warfare than peace. As soon as the celebrations have been over, his life sped downhill. The cash went first. He spent liberally, even throughout his struggle bond tour, treating individuals to drinks and meals. He flew house to see his household each weekend, paying for the journeys himself. He purchased furnishings for his mom and lavished money on his brothers. In a 1957 interview with journalist Mike Wallace, Kelly stated, “If I’ve one thing, I all the time need to give it to someone else. I’ll give anyone the shirt off my again.”

On March 11, 1945, one yr after he acquired the Medal of Honor, Kelly married Mae Francis Boish, a cashier in a restaurant. They purchased a home in Pittsburgh and a fuel station to function however bought the station at a loss two years later. Kelly had gotten more and more stressed going to work on the similar place and doing the identical factor daily. He couldn’t take it.

This story was first seen within the December 2014 challenge of WWII Historical past Journal. Order your copy in the present day!

A Arduous Adjustment to Civilian Life

A hero in combat, 'Commando' Charles Kelly battled demons at home after winning the Medal of Honor in the European Theater.Kelly was not alone find it exhausting to regulate to civilian life after the struggle. “The capturing struggle could also be over,” Common Omar Bradley stated,” however the struggling isn’t.” Greater than two million veterans didn’t have jobs as late as 1947, two years after the top of the warfare. Their price of unemployment was 3 times greater than those that had not gone to warfare. Typically their household lives have been in shambles as nicely. American veterans of World Warfare II had the world’s highest divorce price; greater than twice as many filed for divorce within the first two years after the struggle than did nonveterans.

Hundreds of thousands of returning servicemen suffered from extreme psychological issues of the sort now categorized as PTSD (publish traumatic stress dysfunction). By 1946, greater than 10,000 veterans every month have been being handled at Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals for neuropsychiatric issues (NP). By the next yr, absolutely half the sufferers in VA hospitals had been recognized as experiencing NP signs. Hundreds of instances went untreated as a result of it was thought-about an indication of weak spot to confess to psychological issues. The lads have been too ashamed to speak about their melancholy and nervousness, to hunt assist, and even to confide of their households. However typically their family members knew one thing was fallacious. They noticed how a lot the lads had modified.

Commando Kelly was a type of who stored his emotions inside. There isn’t a document that he sought assist and even expressed the necessity for it, however he was clearly having difficulties adjusting to civilian life. In 1950, his spouse was recognized with uterine most cancers. She died the next yr on the age of 25. Kelly not often left her aspect throughout her sickness, caring for her and their two youngsters. That very same yr, a financial institution foreclosed on their home. Kelly’s sister Virginia stated, “He went uncontrolled after that and was by no means the identical once more.”
Kelly took a collection of strange jobs as a bodyguard, safety guard, development employee, and home painter, by no means protecting one for lengthy.

So Many ‘No’s’

In 1952 there was a reprieve of types when he was requested to journey the nation campaigning for Common Dwight D. Eisenhower, the previous supreme Allied commander in Europe, who was operating for president. At a cease in Louisville, Kentucky, a lady named Betty Gaskins walked as much as him, held up a nickel, and stated that if he gave her one other nickel she would have a dime (the price of a phone name) and would be capable of name him. Six weeks later they have been married.

“Once you’re in fight,” Kelly stated in an interview that yr, “you’ve gotten a job to do, you understand how to do it, and you realize you are able to do it. However these years have been tough. Your palms are tied. You might have a factor to do, however you’ll be able to’t do it. You go in and ask a person for a job. It’s a job you by no means had earlier than, and also you’re asking for it, however you don’t know if you are able to do it. And also you get so many ‘No’s.’

“Then there’s your loved ones. You give the youngsters cereal within the morning, they usually ask you for extra, and there isn’t any extra. If you inform them, you don’t really feel like a lot of a person.”
The story of Kelly’s plight turned public; newspapers all through the nation ran tales about him. Donations of cash, furnishings, and clothes poured in, together with greater than 100 job provides. Kelly accepted a job in St. Louis, Missouri, as a purchaser for a scrap iron firm. The proprietor organized monetary help so Kelly might purchase an eight-bedroom home for his household. The home was value $25,000 (equal to greater than $200,000 right now), however Kelly give up earlier than the household even had an opportunity to maneuver in.

Short-term Assist from a Kentucky Governor

The governor of Kentucky, A.B. “Pleased” Chandler, organized a job for Kelly as an inspector within the State Freeway Division; the month-to-month pay was $340. He stored that place for 5 years till at some point in April 1961, when he referred to as his spouse to say that he was going to Cuba to struggle Fidel Castro. He promised to arrange a belief fund for her and the youngsters however added that she shouldn’t attempt to discover him.

Kelly by no means went residence once more. For 15 years neither Betty nor the youngsters had any concept of his whereabouts. Betty divorced him and raised the youngsters on her personal. “We obtained the brief finish of the stick of what we had of our dad,” his daughter later stated. Kelly drank extra closely, took no matter momentary work he might discover, and moved round from California to Texas to the East Coast. In Washington, D.C., he was in a visitors accident, struck by a automotive and hospitalized for nearly a yr with a cranium fracture and damaged legs.

Ultimate Moments Spent Alone

In 1984, after 40 years of heavy consuming and onerous dwelling, Commando Kelly died alone in a Pittsburgh VA hospital, the place he was being handled for kidney and liver failure. He had taken the bus there and advised the admitting clerk that he had no dwelling kin, regardless that 5 of his brothers have been close by. He selected to die alone. He intentionally pulled the tubes from his physique that have been serving to him keep alive. He was 64 years previous. Nobody is aware of what occurred to his medals.

Duane Schultz is a psychologist who has written a dozen army historical past books together with Into the Hearth: The Most Fateful Mission of World Conflict II and Crossing the Rapido: A Tragedy of World Struggle II. His most up-to-date guide is The Destiny of Struggle: Fredericksburg, 1862. He’s presently engaged on a e-book on the Marine Raiders of World Warfare II.